Safe Environment for Every Kid (SEEK™)

Mental Health Does Not Currently Meet Criteria

Safe Environment for Every Kid (SEEK™) aims to assess and address psychosocial problems to strengthen families, support parents, and promote children’s healthy development in their first 5 years. Parents complete a brief Parent Questionnaire before selected well-child visits. The questionnaire is used to identify parenting and family risk factors for child maltreatment such as depression, substance use, parental stress, intimate partner violence, food insecurity, and harsh punishment. SEEK is delivered by primary care professionals (PCPs) who use motivational interviewing techniques to engage parents as partners. Then, PCPs and parents develop a plan utilizing the families’ strengths to address identified risk factors and barriers to engagement. At the end of the well-child visit, parents receive handouts for each identified risk factor. The handouts provide basic information and resources in a user-friendly way to reinforce what was covered during the visit. PCPs then refer consenting families to community resources, as needed, often with the help of clinical social workers and mental health professionals.


Safe Environment for Every Kid (SEEK) does not currently meet criteria to receive a rating because no studies of the program that achieved a rating of moderate or high on design and execution demonstrated a favorable effect on a target outcome.


Date Research Evidence Last Reviewed: Oct 2021


Sources

The program or service description, target population, and program or service delivery and implementation information was informed by the following sources: the program or service manual, the program or service developer’s website, and the California Evidence Based Clearinghouse for Child Welfare.


This information does not necessarily represent the views of the program or service developers. For more information on how this program or service was reviewed, visit the Review Process page or download the Handbook.

Target Population

SEEK is designed for families with children 5 years and younger.

Dosage

SEEK is typically delivered at selected well-child visits (i.e., 2-month, 9-month, 15-month, 2-year, 3-year, 4-year, and 5-year) until the child is 5 years old.

Location/Delivery Setting
Recommended Locations/Delivery Settings

SEEK is delivered in pediatric and family medicine primary care settings.

Education, Certifications and Training

SEEK is delivered by licensed medical professionals including pediatricians, family medicine physicians, physician assistants, nurse practitioners, and residents in pediatric and family medicine primary care settings. Providers must complete a free online self-paced training. The training consists of nine 15-minute modules on the SEEK model, risk factors for child maltreatment, relationship building, motivational interviewing, and approaches for addressing barriers to engagement.

A program license and copyright agreement are required to deliver the intervention. The license allows healthcare practices to implement the program and use SEEK materials. Licensed healthcare practices are required to provide implementation feedback every 6 months.

Program or Service Documentation
Book/Manual/Available documentation used for review

The SEEK Online Training Modules video is implemented in conjunction with the Algorithms and Responses to Barriers infographics.

Dubowitz, H., & Lane, W. (2013). SEEK online training modules [Video]. Department of Pediatrics, University of Maryland School of Medicine. https://seekwellbeing.org/introduction-to-training-videos/

Safe Environment for Every Kid (SEEK). (2020). Algorithms and responses to barriers [Infographic]. Department of Pediatrics, University of Maryland School of Medicine. https://seekwellbeing.org/seek-materials/

Available languages

The materials for SEEK are available in English. The Parent Questionnaire (PQ-R) is available in English, Spanish, Italian, and Mandarin Chinese. Parent resources are available in English and Spanish.

Other supporting materials

The SEEK Model

SEEK Materials

Training Information

Contact Information for Developers

Website: https://seekwellbeing.org/

Phone: (410) 706-1703

Contact form: https://seekwellbeing.org/contact-us/

Results of Search and Review Number of Studies Identified and Reviewed for Safe Environment for Every Kid (SEEK™)
Identified in Search 9
Eligible for Review 2
Rated High 0
Rated Moderate 1
Rated Low 1
Reviewed Only for Risk of Harm 0
Outcome Effect Size Effect Size more info
and Implied Percentile Effect Implied Percentile Effect more info
N of Studies (Findings) N of Participants Summary of Findings
Child safety: Child welfare administrative reports 0.28
11
1 (1) 558 Favorable: 0
No Effect: 1
Unfavorable: 0

Note: For the effect sizes and implied percentile effects reported in the table, a positive number favors the intervention group and a negative number favors the comparison group.

Outcome Effect Size Effect Size more info
and Implied Percentile Effect Implied Percentile Effect more info
N of Studies (Findings) N of Participants Summary of Findings Months after treatment
when outcome measured
Months after treatment when outcome measured more info
Child safety: Child welfare administrative reports 0.28
11
1 (1) 558 Favorable: 0
No Effect: 1
Unfavorable: 0
-
Dubowitz, 2009
Child Protective Services Reports 0.28
11
- 558 - 0

*p <.05

Note: For the effect sizes and implied percentile effects reported in the table, a positive number favors the intervention group and a negative number favors the comparison group. Effect sizes and implied percentile effects were calculated by the Prevention Services Clearinghouse as described in the Handbook of Standards and Procedures, Section 5.10.4 and may not align with effect sizes reported in individual publications.

Only publications with eligible contrasts that met design and execution standards are included in the individual study findings table.

Full citations for the studies shown in the table are available in the "Studies Reviewed" section.

Sometimes study results are reported in more than one document, or a single document reports results from multiple studies. Studies are identified below by their Prevention Services Clearinghouse study identification numbers.

Studies Rated Moderate

Study 11664

Lane, W., Dubowitz, H., Feigelman, S., & Poole, G. (2014) The effectiveness of food insecurity screening in pediatric primary care. International Journal of Child Health and Nutrition, 3(3), 130-138. https://doi.org/10.6000/1929-4247.2014.03.03.3

Dubowitz, H., Feigelman, S., Lane, W., & Kim, J. (2009). Pediatric primary care to help prevent child maltreatment: The Safe Environment for Every Kid (SEEK) model. Pediatrics, 123(3), 858-864. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2008-1376

Feigelman, S., Dubowitz, H., Lane, W., Grube, L., & Kim, J. (2011). Training pediatric residents in a primary care clinic to help address psychosocial problems and prevent child maltreatment. Academic Pediatrics, 11(6), 474-480. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.acap.2011.07.005


Studies Rated Low

Study 11666

Lane, W. G., Dubowitz, H., Frick, K. D., Semiatin, J., & Magder, L. (2021). Cost effectiveness of SEEK: A primary care-based child maltreatment prevention model. Child Abuse & Neglect, 111, Article 104809. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2020.104809

Dubowitz, H., Lane, W. G., Semiatin, J. N., & Magder, L. S. (2012). The SEEK model of pediatric primary care: Can child maltreatment be prevented in a low-risk population? Academic Pediatrics, 12(4), 259-268. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.acap.2012.03.005

Dubowitz, H., Lane, W. G., Semiatin, J. N., Magder, L. S., Venepally, M., & Jans, M. (2011). The Safe Environment for Every Kid model: Impact on pediatric primary care professionals. Pediatrics, 127(4), e962–e970. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2010-1845

This study received a low rating because baseline equivalence of the intervention and comparison groups was necessary and not demonstrated.


Studies Not Eligible for Review

Study 11665

Dubowitz, H., Lane, W. G., Semiatin, J. N., Magder, L. S., Venepally, M., & Jans, M. (2011). The Safe Environment for Every Kid model: Impact on pediatric primary care professionals. Pediatrics, 127(4), e962-e970. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2010-1845

This study is ineligible for review because it does not report program or service impacts on an eligible target outcome (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.5).

Study 11667

Dubowitz, H. (2013). The Safe Environment for Every Kid (SEEK) model: Promoting children's health, development and safety. Zero to Three.

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4).

Study 11668

Dubowitz, H., Saldana, L., Magder, L. A., Palinkas, L. A., Landsverk, J. A., Belanger, R. L., & Nwosu, U. S. (2020). Protocol for comparing two training approaches for primary care professionals implementing the Safe Environment for Every Kid (SEEK) model. Implementation Science Communications, 1, Article 78. https://doi.org/10.1186/s43058-020-00059-9

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4).

Study 11669

Dubowitz, H. (2014). The Safe Environment for Every Kid model: Promotion of children's health, development, and safety, and prevention of child neglect. Pediatric Annals, 43(11), e271-e277. https://doi.org/10.3928/00904481-20141022-11

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4).

Study 11670

Dubowitz, H. (2014). The Safe Environment for Every Kid (SEEK) model: Helping promote children’s health, development and safety: SEEK offers a practical model for enhancing pediatric primary care. Child Abuse and Neglect, 38(11), 1725-1733. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2014.07.011

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4).

Study 11671

Eismann, E. A., Theuerling, J., Maguire, S., Hente, E. A., & Shapiro, R. A. (2019). Integration of the Safe Environment for Every Kid (SEEK) model across primary care settings. Clinical Pediatrics, 58(2), 166-176. https://doi.org/10.1177/0009922818809481

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4).

Study 11672

Feigelman, S., Dubowitz, H., Lane, W., Grube, L., & Kim, J. (2011). Training pediatric residents in a primary care clinic to help address psychosocial problems and prevent child maltreatment. Academic Pediatrics, 11(6), 474-480. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.acap.2011.07.005

This study is ineligible for review because it does not report program or service impacts on an eligible target outcome (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.5).