Aggression Replacement Training®

Mental Health Promising

Aggression Replacement Training® (ART) is a cognitive-behaviorally-based intervention designed to serve youth who display violent and aggressive behavior. ART consists of three components: social skills training, where youth learn how to replace aggressive behaviors with prosocial behaviors; anger control training, where youth learn how to handle anger-provoking situations; and moral reasoning training, where youth learn how to perspective-take and develop concern for others.

 

Group facilitators provide social skills training using a four-stage process: (1) modeling the skill, (2) role-playing, (3) providing performance feedback, and (4) facilitating transfer training. Transfer training, such as homework, requires youth to use the skill outside of ART sessions. Group facilitators provide anger control training using the A-B-C model, focusing on antecedents, behaviors, and consequences of aggression. Youth record anger-triggering situations in a “Hassle Log” and learn to identify their anger triggers and techniques they can use to control their anger. Group facilitators provide moral reasoning training through social decision-making meetings. The meetings help youth use a four-step process to discuss options for handling a fictional problem situation and to decide on a course of action by: (1) introducing the problem situation, (2) cultivating moral maturity by discussing responsible moral decisions for the problem situation, (3) remediating moral development delay by discussing irresponsible decisions, and (4) consolidating moral maturity by forming a group consensus about the responsible decision for the problem situation.


ART is rated as a promising practice because at least one study achieved a rating of moderate or high on study design and execution and demonstrated a favorable effect on a target outcome.


Date Research Evidence Last Reviewed: Oct 2021


Sources

The program or service description, target population, and program or service delivery and implementation information was informed by the following sources: the program or service manual, the California Evidence Based Clearinghouse for Child Welfare, and the studies reviewed.


This information does not necessarily represent the views of the program or service developers. For more information on how this program or service was reviewed, visit the Review Process page or download the Handbook.

Target Population

ART is designed for youth ages 13 to 18 who exhibit violent or aggressive behavior. 

Dosage

ART is typically delivered three times per week over 10 weeks for a total of 30 sessions. One session per program component (i.e., social skills training, anger control training, moral reasoning training) is offered each week for a total of 10 sessions per program component. Each session lasts about 45 to 90 minutes. ART is delivered to 8 to 12 youth per session in a group format. Prior to youth joining the group, group facilitators typically meet once with each youth individually to inform them of the purpose, procedures, and group rules. 

Location/Delivery Setting
Recommended Locations/Delivery Settings

ART can be delivered in a range of settings such as schools, community agencies, and juvenile institutions.

Location/Delivery Settings Observed in the Research

  • Correctional Facility

Education, Certifications and Training

Two group facilitators typically lead each ART session. Group facilitators must have at least a high school diploma. Group facilitators should have knowledge, skill, and sensitivity around the need for differential training strategies and instructional tactics, participant channels of accessibility and communication styles, potential for stereotyping, and culturally associated qualities of participants.  

Developer-provided training in ART is recommended, but not required, to implement the program. To become accredited, group facilitators can attend a 5-day training. The training covers the three components of ART (i.e., social skills training, anger control training, moral reasoning training) and allows participants to practice delivering lessons to their fellow trainees.

Program or Service Documentation
Book/Manual/Available documentation used for review

Glick, B., & Gibbs, J. (2011). Aggression Replacement Training®: A comprehensive intervention for aggressive youth (3rd ed.). Research Press.

Available languages

Materials for ART are available in English, Italian, Norwegian, Polish, Spanish, and Swedish.  

Contact Information for Developers

Website: https://aggressionreplacementtraining.com/    

Phone: (518) 229-7933

Email: artgang01@gmail.com

Results of Search and Review Number of Studies Identified and Reviewed for Aggression Replacement Training®
Identified in Search 23
Eligible for Review 1
Rated High 0
Rated Moderate 1
Rated Low 0
Reviewed Only for Risk of Harm 0
Outcome Effect Size Effect Size more info
and Implied Percentile Effect Implied Percentile Effect more info
N of Studies (Findings) N of Participants Summary of Findings
Child well-being: Behavioral and emotional functioning 0.28
10
1 (4) 65 Favorable: 1
No Effect: 3
Unfavorable: 0

Note: For the effect sizes and implied percentile effects reported in the table, a positive number favors the intervention group and a negative number favors the comparison group.

Outcome Effect Size Effect Size more info
and Implied Percentile Effect Implied Percentile Effect more info
N of Studies (Findings) N of Participants Summary of Findings Months after treatment
when outcome measured
Months after treatment when outcome measured more info
Child well-being: Behavioral and emotional functioning 0.28
10
1 (4) 65 Favorable: 1
No Effect: 3
Unfavorable: 0
-
Kaya, 2016
Trait Anger 0.40
15
- 65 - 0
Anger Expression Scales: Anger-Control 0.71 *
26
- 65 - 0
Anger Expression Scales: Anger-In 0.18
6
- 65 - 0
Aggression Questionnaire: Anger -0.18
-7
- 65 - 0

*p <.05

Note: For the effect sizes and implied percentile effects reported in the table, a positive number favors the intervention group and a negative number favors the comparison group. Effect sizes and implied percentile effects were calculated by the Prevention Services Clearinghouse as described in the Handbook of Standards and Procedures, Section 5.10.4 and may not align with effect sizes reported in individual publications.

Only publications with eligible contrasts that met design and execution standards are included in the individual study findings table.

Full citations for the studies shown in the table are available in the "Studies Reviewed" section.

Sometimes study results are reported in more than one document, or a single document reports results from multiple studies. Studies are identified below by their Prevention Services Clearinghouse study identification numbers.

Studies Rated Moderate

Study 12368

Kaya, F., & Buzlu, S. (2016). Effects of Aggression Replacement Training on problem solving, anger and aggressive behaviour among adolescents with criminal attempts in Turkey: A quasi-experimental study. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, 30(6), 729-735. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apnu.2016.07.001




Studies Not Eligible for Review

Study 12360

Coleman, M., Pfeiffer, S., & Oakland, T. (1992). Aggression Replacement Training with behaviorally disordered adolescents. Behavioral Disorders, 18(1), 54-66. https://doi.org/10.1177/019874299201800101

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 12361

Glick, B. (1996). Aggression Replacement Training in children and adolescents. In The Hatherleigh Guide to Child and Adolescent Therapy (pp. 191–226). Hatherleigh Press.

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible publication source (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.2).

Study 12362

Grier, L. K. (1998). The effects of an intervention to advance moral reasoning and efficacy. Child Study Journal, 28(4), 267-290.

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 12363

Gundersen, K., & Svartdal, F. (2006). Aggression Replacement Training in Norway: Outcome evaluation of 11 Norwegian student projects. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 50(1), 63-81. https://doi.org/10.1080/00313830500372059

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 12364

Gundersen, K., & Svartdal, F. (2010). Diffusion of treatment interventions: Exploration of 'secondary' treatment diffusion. Psychology, Crime & Law, 16(3), 233-249. https://doi.org/10.1080/10683160802612924

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 12365

Hatcher, R., Palmer, E., McGuire, J., Hounsome, J., Bilby, C. L., & Hollin, C. (2008). Aggression Replacement Training with adult male offenders within community settings: A reconviction analysis. Journal of Forensic Psychiatry & Psychology, 19(4), 517-532. https://doi.org/10.1080/14789940801936407

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 12366

Holmqvist, R., Hill, T., & Lang, A. (2009). Effects of Aggression Replacement Training in young offender institutions. International Journal of Offender Therapy & Comparative Criminology, 53(1), 74-92. https://doi.org/10.1177/0306624X07310452

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 12367

Hornsveld, R. H. J., Kraaimaat, F. W., Muris, P., Zwets, A. J., & Kanters, T. (2015). Aggression Replacement Training for violent young men in a forensic psychiatric outpatient clinic. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 30(18), 3174-3191. https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260514555007

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 12370

Koposov, R., Gundersen, K. K., & Svartdal, F. (2014). Efficacy of Aggression Replacement Training among children from North-West Russia. International Journal of Emotional Education, 6(1), 14-24. https://www.um.edu.mt/library/oar//handle/123456789/6205

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 12371

Lardén, M., Nordén, E., Forsman, M., & Långström, N. (2018). Effectiveness of Aggression Replacement Training in reducing criminal recidivism among convicted adult offenders. Criminal Behaviour & Mental Health, 28(6), 476-491. https://doi.org/10.1002/cbm.2092

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 12372

Leeman, L. W., Gibbs, J. C., & Fuller, D. (1993). Evaluation of a multi-component group treatment program for juvenile delinquents. Aggressive Behavior, 19(4), 281-292. https://doi.org/10.1002/1098-2337(1993)19:4<281::AID-AB2480190404>3.0.CO;2-W

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 12373

Lipsey, M. W. (2018). Effective use of the large body of research on the effectiveness of programs for juvenile offenders and the failure of the model programs approach. Criminology & Public Policy, 17(1), 189-198. https://doi.org/10.1111/1745-9133.12345

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4).

Study 12374

Moynahan, L. (2003). Enhanced Aggression Replacement Training with children and youth with autism spectrum disorder. Reclaiming Children and Youth: The Journal of Strength-based Interventions, 12(3), 174-180.

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4).

Study 12375

Moynahan, L., & Strømgren, B. (2005). Preliminary results of Aggression Replacement Training for Norwegian youth with aggressive behaviour and with a different diagnosis. Psychology, Crime & Law, 11(4), 411-419. https://doi.org/10.1080/10683160500256784

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 12376

Nijhof, K., Te Brinke, L. W., Njardvik, U., & Liber, J. M. (2021). The role of perspective taking and self-control in a preventive intervention targeting childhood disruptive behavior. Research on Child and Adolescent Psychopathology, 49, 657–670. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-020-00761-1

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 12377

Nualnong, W., Day, A., Ward, P. R., & Winefield, A. H. (2014). Assessing effectiveness of Aggression Replacement Training at a technical college in Thailand. Social Behavior & Personality: An international journal, 42(6), 1047-1056. https://doi.org/10.2224/sbp.2014.42.6.1047

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 12378

Nugent, W. R., Bruley, C., & Allen, P. (1998). The effects of Aggression Replacement Training on antisocial behavior in a runaway shelter. Research on Social Work Practice, 8(6), 637-656. https://doi.org/10.1177/104973159800800602

Nugent, W. R., Bruley, C., & Allen, P. (1999). The effects of Aggression Replacement Training on male and female antisocial behavior in a runaway shelter. Research on Social Work Practice, 9(4), 466-482. https://doi.org/10.1177/104973159900900404

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 12380

Sanderlin, T. K. (2016). Anger management with aggressive criminal offenders in a low fear, high arousal group environment. Annals of Psychotherapy & Integrative Health.

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 12381

Smith, L. L., & Griffin, J. K. (2002). Conversations with delinquents: The mingling of meager dialogues: A pilot study. Journal of Correctional Education, 53(4), 127-130.

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 12382

van der Put, C. E., Asscher, J. J., Stams, G. J. J. M., van der Laan, P. H., Breuk, R., Jongman, E., & Doreleijers, T. (2013). Recidivism after treatment in a forensic youth-psychiatric setting: The effect of treatment characteristics. International Journal of Offender Therapy & Comparative Criminology, 57(9), 1120-1139. https://doi.org/10.1177/0306624X12452389

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 12383

Zwets, A. J., Hornsveld, R. H. J., Muris, P., Kanters, T., Langstraat, E., & van Marle, H. J. C. (2016). Psychomotor therapy as an additive intervention for violent forensic psychiatric inpatients: A pilot study. International Journal of Forensic Mental Health, 15(3), 222-234. https://doi.org/10.1080/14999013.2016.1152613

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4).

Study 12731

Jones, Y. (1991). Aggression Replacement Training in a high school setting. Australian Journal of Guidance & Counselling, 1(1), 81-99. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1037291100002405

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).