Triple P – Positive Parenting Program – Online (Level 4)

Mental Health Supported

Triple P – Positive Parenting Program – Online (Level 4) (“Triple P-Online”) is a parenting intervention. Triple P-Online is designed to offer parents support for encouraging children’s positive behaviors; managing misbehaviors, tantrums, and disobedience; and teaching children new skills. Triple P-Online includes 8 modules intended to help parents understand the foundations of positive parenting, manage children’s behaviors, teach children new skills, deal with disobedience, plan ahead to prevent problems, raise confident children, and apply consequences and rewards. In addition to the online modules, parents can access individualized workbooks, worksheets, podcasts, and module summaries.


Triple P – Positive Parenting Program – Online (Level 4) is rated as a supported practice because at least one study carried out in a usual care or practice setting achieved a rating of moderate or high on design and execution and demonstrated a sustained favorable effect of at least 6 months beyond the end of treatment on at least one target outcome.


Date Research Evidence Last Reviewed: May 2021


Sources

The program or service description, target population, and program or service delivery and implementation information was informed by the following sources: the California Evidence-based Clearinghouse for Child Welfare, the Home Visiting Evidence of Effectiveness review, the program or service developer’s website, the program or service manual, and the studies reviewed.

 

Program/Service Webpage Updated: May 2021


This information does not necessarily represent the views of the program or service developers. For more information on how this program or service was reviewed, visit the Review Process page or download the Handbook.

Target Population

Triple P-Online serves families with children (up to 12 years) with significant social, emotional or behavioral problems. It also serves families who wish to prevent such problems.  

Dosage

Triple P-Online includes eight 60-minute modules. Triple P-Online access codes stay active for 12 months. This allows parents to complete the program at their own pace, with a recommended completion rate of 1 module per week.

Location/Delivery Setting
Recommended Locations/Delivery Settings

Parents can access Triple P-Online using devices such as a computer, tablet, or smartphone connected to the internet.

Location/Delivery Settings Observed in the Research

  • Home
  • Online

Education, Certifications and Training

Triple P-Online is a stand-alone web-based intervention and is not delivered by a practitioner.

Program or Service Documentation
Book/Manual/Available documentation used for review

Turner, K. M. T., & Sanders, M. R. (2013). Triple P Online. Triple P International Pty Ltd.

Available languages

Triple P-Online is available in English, Spanish, German, Dutch Flemish, French, and Arabic.

Other supporting materials

Program Overview

Contact Information for Developers

Website: https://www.triplep.net/glo-en/home/

Phone: 803-451-2278

Email: contact.us@triplep.net

Results of Search and Review Number of Studies Identified and Reviewed for Triple P – Positive Parenting Program – Online (Level 4)
Identified in Search 23
Eligible for Review 4
Rated High 1
Rated Moderate 1
Rated Low 2
Reviewed Only for Risk of Harm 0
Outcome Effect Size Effect Size more info
and Implied Percentile Effect Implied Percentile Effect more info
N of Studies (Findings) N of Participants Summary of Findings
Child well-being: Behavioral and emotional functioning 0.38
14
1 (7) 46 Favorable: 1
No Effect: 6
Unfavorable: 0
Child well-being: Social functioning 0.31
12
1 (3) 46 Favorable: 0
No Effect: 3
Unfavorable: 0
Adult well-being: Positive parenting practices 0.58
21
2 (9) 90 Favorable: 4
No Effect: 5
Unfavorable: 0
Adult well-being: Parent/caregiver mental or emotional health 0.73
26
1 (6) 46 Favorable: 5
No Effect: 1
Unfavorable: 0
Adult well-being: Family functioning 0.34
13
1 (3) 44 Favorable: 0
No Effect: 3
Unfavorable: 0

Note: For the effect sizes and implied percentile effects reported in the table, a positive number favors the intervention group and a negative number favors the comparison group.

Outcome Effect Size Effect Size more info
and Implied Percentile Effect Implied Percentile Effect more info
N of Studies (Findings) N of Participants Summary of Findings Months after treatment
when outcome measured
Months after treatment when outcome measured more info
Child well-being: Behavioral and emotional functioning 0.38
14
1 (7) 46 Favorable: 1
No Effect: 6
Unfavorable: 0
-
Franke, 2020
Conners Early Childhood Behavior Scales: Hyperactivity/Inattention (Parent Report) 0.61 *
22
- 46 - 0
Conners Early Childhood Behavior Scales: Hyperactivity/Inattention (Parent Report) 0.25
9
- 41 - 6
Conners Early Childhood Behavior Scales: Restlessness/Impulsivity (Parent Report) 0.53
20
- 46 - 0
Conners Early Childhood Behavior Scales: Restlessness/Impulsivity (Parent Report) 0.27
10
- 41 - 6
Conners Early Childhood Behavior Scales, Short Form: Hyperactivity/Inattention (Parent Report) 0.38
14
- 35 - 0
Conners Early Childhood Behavior Scales: Defiance/Aggression (Parent Report) 0.47
18
- 46 - 0
Conners Early Childhood Behavior Scales: Defiance/Aggression (Parent Report) 0.12
4
- 41 - 6
Child well-being: Social functioning 0.31
12
1 (3) 46 Favorable: 0
No Effect: 3
Unfavorable: 0
-
Franke, 2020
Conners Early Childhood Behavior Scales: Social Functioning (Parent Report) 0.57
21
- 46 - 0
Conners Early Childhood Behavior Scales: Social Functioning (Parent Report) 0.24
9
- 41 - 6
Conners Early Childhood Behavior Scales, Short Form: Social Functioning (Parent Report) 0.11
4
- 35 - 0
Adult well-being: Positive parenting practices 0.58
21
2 (9) 90 Favorable: 4
No Effect: 5
Unfavorable: 0
-
Ehrensaft, 2016
Parenting Scale: Overreactivity 0.47
18
- 44 - 0
Franke, 2020
Parenting Scale: Overreactivity (Parent Report) 1.72 *
45
- 46 - 0
Parenting Scale: Overreactivity (Parent Report) 0.48
18
- 41 - 6
Parenting Scale: Verbosity (Parent Report) 0.78 *
28
- 46 - 0
Parenting Scale: Verbosity (Parent Report) 0.47
18
- 41 - 6
Parenting Scale: Laxness (Parent Report) 0.76 *
27
- 46 - 0
Parenting Scale: Laxness (Parent Report) 0.29
11
- 41 - 6
Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire: Authoritative Parenting (Parent Report) 0.71 *
25
- 46 - 0
Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire: Authoritative Parenting (Parent Report) 0.30
11
- 41 - 6
Adult well-being: Parent/caregiver mental or emotional health 0.73
26
1 (6) 46 Favorable: 5
No Effect: 1
Unfavorable: 0
-
Franke, 2020
Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21): Anxiety 0.23
9
- 46 - 0
Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21): Anxiety 0.84 *
29
- 41 - 6
Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21): Stress 0.86 *
30
- 46 - 0
Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21): Stress 1.08 *
36
- 41 - 6
Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21): Depression 0.66 *
24
- 46 - 0
Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21): Depression 0.73 *
26
- 41 - 6
Adult well-being: Family functioning 0.34
13
1 (3) 44 Favorable: 0
No Effect: 3
Unfavorable: 0
-
Ehrensaft, 2016
Parenting Stress Index-Short Form: Total Score 0.49
18
- 44 - 0
Parenting Stress Index-Short Form: Parental Distress 0.32
12
- 44 - 0
Parenting Stress Index-Short Form: Difficult Child 0.21
8
- 44 - 0

*p <.05

Note: For the effect sizes and implied percentile effects reported in the table, a positive number favors the intervention group and a negative number favors the comparison group. Effect sizes and implied percentile effects were calculated by the Prevention Services Clearinghouse as described in the Handbook of Standards and Procedures, Section 5.10.4 and may not align with effect sizes reported in individual publications.

Only publications with eligible contrasts that met design and execution standards are included in the individual study findings table.

Full citations for the studies shown in the table are available in the "Studies Reviewed" section.

Sometimes study results are reported in more than one document, or a single document reports results from multiple studies. Studies are identified below by their Prevention Services Clearinghouse study identification numbers.

Studies Rated High

Study 11294

Franke, N., Keown, L. J., & Sanders, M. (2020). An RCT of an online parenting program for parents of preschool-aged children with ADHD symptoms. Journal of Attention Disorders, 24(12), 1716-1726. https://doi.org/10.1177/1087054716667598


Studies Rated Moderate

Study 10750

Ehrensaft, M. K., Knous-Westfall, H. M., & Alonso, T. L. (2016). Web-based prevention of parenting difficulties in young, urban mothers enrolled in post-secondary education. The Journal of Primary Prevention, 37(6), 527-542. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10935-016-0448-1


Studies Rated Low

Study 10746

Sanders, M. R., Baker, S., & Turner, K. M. T. (2012). A randomized controlled trial evaluating the efficacy of Triple P Online with parents of children with early-onset conduct problems. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 50(11), 675-684. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2012.07.004

This study received a low rating because the standards for addressing missing data were not met.
Study 10747

Day, J. J., & Sanders, M. R. (2017). Mediators of parenting change within a web-based parenting program: Evidence from a randomized controlled trial of Triple P Online. Couple and Family Psychology, 6(3), 154-170. https://doi.org/10.1037/cfp0000083

Day, J. J., & Sanders, M. R. (2018). Do parents benefit from help when completing a self-guided parenting program online? A randomized controlled trial comparing Triple P Online with and without telephone support. Behavior Therapy, 49(6), 1020-1038. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.beth.2018.03.002

This study received a low rating because the standards for addressing missing data were not met.


Studies Not Eligible for Review

Study 10741

Baker, S., & Sanders, M. R. (2017). Predictors of program use and child and parent outcomes of a brief online parenting intervention. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 48(5), 807-817. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10578-016-0706-8

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 10744

Dahinten, V. S., Arim, R. G., Guèvremont, A., & Kohen, D. E. (2014). The case for using administrative data to examine a population-based parenting intervention. International Journal of Child Health and Human Development, 7(2), 115-124.

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 10745

David, O. A. (2014). The Rational Positive Parenting program for child externalizing behavior: Mechanisms of change analysis. Journal of Evidence-Based Psychotherapies, 14(1), 21-38.

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 10748

Doyle, O., Hegarty, M., & Owens, C. (2018). Population-based system of parenting support to reduce the prevalence of child social, emotional, and behavioural problems: Difference-in-differences study. Prevention Science, 19(6), 772-781. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11121-018-0907-4

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 10749

Duncombe, M. E., Havighurst, S. S., Kehoe, C. E., Holland, K. A., Frankling, E. J., & Stargatt, R. (2016). Comparing an emotion- and a behavior-focused parenting program as part of a multsystemic intervention for child conduct problems. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 45(3), 320-334. https://doi.org/10.1080/15374416.2014.963855

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 10758

Jalali, M., Pourahmadi, E., Tahmassian, K., & Shaeiri, M. (2008). The effectiveness of the Triple P-Positive Parenting Program on psychological well being of mothers of children with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). Journal of Family Research, 4(4), 353-368.

This study is ineligible for review because it is not available in English (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.3).

Study 10759

Jones, S., Calam, R., Sanders, M., Diggle, P. J., Dempsey, R., & Sadhnani, V. (2014). A pilot web based positive parenting intervention to help bipolar parents to improve perceived parenting skills and child outcomes. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 42(3), 283-296. https://doi.org/10.1017/S135246581300009X

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 10765

Lundin, M., & Karlsson, M. (2014). Estimation of causal effects in observational studies with interference between units. Statistical Methods and Applications, 23(3), 417-433. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10260-014-0257-8

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4).

Study 10772

Morawska, A., Mitchell, A. E., Burgess, S., & Fraser, J. (2016). Effects of Triple P parenting intervention on child health outcomes for childhood asthma and eczema: Randomised controlled trial. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 83, 35-44. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2016.06.001

Morawska, A., Mitchell, A., Burgess, S., & Fraser, J. (2017). Randomized controlled trial of Triple P for parents of children with asthma or eczema: Effects on parenting and child behavior. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 85(4), 283-296. https://doi.org/10.1037/ccp0000177

Morawska, A., Mitchell, A. E., Burgess, S., & Fraser, J. (2017). 'Effects of Triple P parenting intervention on child health outcomes for childhood asthma and eczema: Randomised controlled trial': Corrigendum. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 92, 107. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2016.12.017

Morawska, A., Mitchell, A. E., Burgess, S., & Fraser, J. (2017). Fathers' perceptions of change following parenting intervention: Randomized controlled trial of Triple P for parents of children with asthma or eczema. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 42(7), 792-803. https://doi.org/10.1093/jpepsy/jsw106

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 10774

Pickering, J. A., & Sanders, M. R. (2016). The protocol for a randomised controlled trial (RCT) of a brief intervention for parents of children experiencing sibling conflict. Clinical Psychologist, 20(2), 86-93. https://doi.org/10.1111/cp.12051

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 10777

Turner, K. M., Richards, M., & Sanders, M. R. (2007). Randomised clinical trial of a group parent education programme for Australian Indigenous families. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 43(6), 429-437. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1440-1754.2002.00077.x-i1

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 10778

Schilling, S., Lanier, P., Rose, R. A., Shanahan, M., & Zolotor, A. J. (2019). A quasi-experimental effectiveness study of Triple P on child maltreatment. Journal of Family Violence, 35(4), 373-383. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10896-019-00043-5

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 10785

Zamani, R., Gahari, S., & Pourrahhimi, M. (2017). Effect of teaching positive parenting program to mothers on reducing behavioral problems in children with oppositional defiant disorder. Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 208-213.

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible publication source (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.2).

Study 11297

Baker, S., Sanders, M. R., Turner, K. M. T., & Morawska, A. (2017). A randomized controlled trial evaluating a low-intensity interactive online parenting intervention, Triple P Online Brief, with parents of children with early onset conduct problems. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 97, 78-90. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2017.01.016

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 11298

Dittman, C. K., Farruggia, S. P., Palmer, M. L., Sanders, M. R., & Keown, L. J. (2014). Predicting success in an online parenting intervention: The role of child, parent, and family factors. Journal of Family Psychology, 28(2), 236-243. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0035991

Sanders, M. R., Dittman, C. K., Farruggia, S. P., & Keown, L. J. (2014). A comparison of online versus workbook delivery of a self-help positive parenting program. Journal of Primary Prevention 35(3), 125-133. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10935-014-0339-2

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4).

Study 11299

Hinton, S., Sheffield, J., Sanders, M. R., & Sofronoff, K. (2017). A randomized controlled trial of a telehealth parenting intervention: A mixed-disability trial. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 65, 74-85. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ridd.2017.04.005

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 11300

Jones, S., Jovanoska, J., Calam, R., Wainwright, L., Vincent, H., Asar, O., Diggle, P. J., Parker, R., Long, R., Sanders, M., & Lobban, F. (2017). Web-based integrated bipolar parenting intervention for parents with bipolar disorder: A randomised controlled pilot trial. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 58(9), 1033-1041. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.12745

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 11301

Love, S., Sanders, M., Turner, K., Maurange, M., Knott, T., Prinz, R., Metzler, C., & Ainsworth, A. (2016). Social media and gamification: Engaging vulnerable parents in an online evidence-based parenting program. Child Abuse and Neglect, 53. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2015.10.031

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 11302

Sadhnani, V. (2014). A pilot web based positive parenting intervention to help bipolar parents to improve perceived parenting skills and child outcomes. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 42(3), 283-296. https://doi.org/10.1017/S135246581300009X

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).