Prolonged Exposure Therapy for PTSD

Mental Health Promising

Prolonged Exposure (PE) therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a cognitive-behavioral approach to treating adults who are diagnosed with PTSD or who manifest trauma-related symptoms. PE is designed to help trauma survivors emotionally process their traumatic experiences in order to diminish PTSD and other trauma-related symptoms.

In the first session of PE therapy, the therapist educates the patient about PE, conducts an information gathering interview, and teaches the patient breathing exercises to reduce anxiety. In the second session, the therapist educates the patient about PTSD and explains how to do “in vivo exposure” homework. In vivo exposure requires the patient to confront situations, people, or objects that the patient is avoiding due to trauma reminders. In the third session, the therapist begins “imaginal exposure” by asking the patient to visualize, emotionally connect with, and narrate their traumatic memory. Afterwards, the therapist processes the experience with the patient. Once imaginal exposure begins, patients are asked to listen to audio recordings of these sessions as part of their homework. The number of subsequent sessions is flexible based on the needs of individual participants. Continued sessions involve repeated exposure and emotional processing, focusing on particularly distressing memories. Treatment concludes with a review of the participants’ treatment, progress, and practices the participant should continue after treatment.


Prolonged Exposure Therapy for PTSD is rated as a promising practice because at least one study achieved a rating of moderate or high on study design and execution and demonstrated a favorable effect on a target outcome.


Date Research Evidence Last Reviewed: May 2021


Sources

The program or service description, target population, and program or service delivery and implementation information was informed by the following sources: the California Evidence-based Clearinghouse for Child Welfare, the program or service developer’s website, previews of the program or service manual and patient workbook, and the studies reviewed.


This information does not necessarily represent the views of the program or service developers. For more information on how this program or service was reviewed, visit the Review Process page or download the Handbook.

Target Population

PE is designed to treat adult patients who are diagnosed with PTSD or who manifest trauma-related symptoms.

Dosage

PE is typically delivered in an individual format over 10-15 sessions. Sessions are held once or twice a week for approximately 90 minutes each.

Location/Delivery Setting
Recommended Locations/Delivery Settings

PE is typically delivered in a clinical setting.

Location/Delivery Settings Observed in the Research

  • Hospital/Medical Center
  • Mental Health Center, Treatment Center, Therapist Office
  • Cannot tell

Education, Certifications and Training

PE is delivered by licensed mental health professionals or those working under a licensed mental health professional. The treatment and manuals are designed for use by therapists who are familiar with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) or who have participated in intensive PE workshops conducted by a trainer certified by the Center for the Treatment and Study of Anxiety (CTSA).

 

The CTSA offers trainings and consultation that lead to three levels of certification: PE Therapist, PE Consultant, and PE Trainer. To become a PE Therapist, individuals must complete a 4-day intensive workshop, complete at least two PE cases under a certified PE Consultant, and be recommended by a certified PE Consultant. To become a PE Consultant, individuals must be a certified PE Therapist, complete at least five PE cases, and complete a 5-day intensive workshop. To become a PE Trainer, individuals must be a certified PE Consultant, complete at least 15 PE cases, observe two intensive workshops, and complete a 3-day PE Trainer’s Workshop.

Program or Service Documentation
Book/Manual/Available documentation used for review

Foa, E. B., Hembree, E. A., Rothbaum, B. O., & Rauch, S. A. M. (2019). Prolonged Exposure Therapy for PTSD: Emotional processing of traumatic experiences [Therapist guide]. (2nd ed.). Oxford University Press.

Available languages

Materials for PE are available in English, Spanish, and Japanese.

Other supporting materials

PE Therapist Training

PE Certification Program

Adult Patient Workbook

Contact Information for Developers

Website: https://www.med.upenn.edu/ctsa/workshops_pet.html

Phone: (215) 746-3327

Results of Search and Review Number of Studies Identified and Reviewed for Prolonged Exposure Therapy for PTSD
Identified in Search 118
Eligible for Review 22
Rated High 1
Rated Moderate 12
Rated Low 9
Reviewed Only for Risk of Harm 0
Outcome Effect Size Effect Size more info
and Implied Percentile Effect Implied Percentile Effect more info
N of Studies (Findings) N of Participants Summary of Findings
Adult well-being: Parent/caregiver mental or emotional health 0.81
29
12 (34) 534 Favorable: 17
No Effect: 17
Unfavorable: 0

Note: For the effect sizes and implied percentile effects reported in the table, a positive number favors the intervention group and a negative number favors the comparison group.

Outcome Effect Size Effect Size more info
and Implied Percentile Effect Implied Percentile Effect more info
N of Studies (Findings) N of Participants Summary of Findings Months after treatment
when outcome measured
Months after treatment when outcome measured more info
Adult well-being: Parent/caregiver mental or emotional health 0.81
29
12 (34) 534 Favorable: 17
No Effect: 17
Unfavorable: 0
-
Cahill, 2003
State-Trait Anxiety Inventory: State Anxiety 1.55 *
43
- 32 - 0
Feske, 2008
PTSD Diagnostic Scale: Interview 1.11 *
36
- 21 - 2
Beck Anxiety Inventory 0.67
24
- 21 - 2
Brief Symptom Inventory: General Severity Index 0.73
26
- 21 - 2
PTSD Diagnostic Scale: Interview 1.12 *
36
- 21 - 4
Beck Anxiety Inventory 0.89
31
- 21 - 4
Brief Symptom Inventory: General Severity Index 0.94
32
- 21 - 4
Foa, 1991
Rape Aftermath Symptom Test (RAST) 0.45
17
- 20 - 0
State-Trait Anxiety Inventory: State Anxiety 0.66
24
- 20 - 0
Beck Depression Inventory 0.13
4
- 20 - 0
Foa, 1999
Social Adjustment Scale: Global 1.30 *
40
- 37 - 0
Ghafoori, 2019
The Brief Symptom Inventory-18: Depression 0.23
9
- 77 - 0
Johnson, 2006
Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale: Avoidance Symptoms Scale 0.78
28
- 20 - 0
Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale: Hyperarousal Symptoms Scale 0.58
22
- 20 - 0
Nacasch, 2011
PTSD Symptom Scale: Interview Version 1.81 *
46
- 30 - 0
Beck Depression Inventory 1.21 *
38
- 30 - 0
State-Trait Anxiety Inventory: State Anxiety 1.37 *
41
- 30 - 0
State-Trait Anxiety Inventory: Trait Anxiety 0.87 *
30
- 30 - 0
Posttraumatic Cognitions Inventory 0.68
25
- 30 - 0
Norman, 2016
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist–Specific 0.68
25
- 26 - 0
Patient Health Questionnaire-9 -0.26
-10
- 26 - 0
Resick, 2002
Beck Depression Inventory 1.18 *
38
- 75 - 0
PTSD Symptom Scale: Total Frequency Score 1.86 *
46
- 79 - 0
Beck Depression Inventory 1.22 *
38
- 108 - 0
Rothbaum, 2005
Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale: % with PTSD Diagnosis 3.05 *
49
- 40 - 0
Beck Depression Inventory 1.32 *
40
- 40 - 0
Dissociative Experiences Scale-II 0.79 *
28
- 39 - 0
Wells, 2015
Impact of Events Scale (Post-Treatment) 1.67 *
45
- 20 - 0
Impact of Events Scale (Mid-Treatment) 0.98
33
- 20 - 0
Zang, 2017
Brief COPE: Adaptive Coping 0.10
3
- 50 - 3
Brief COPE: Avoidant Coping 0.56
21
- 50 - 3
de Bont, 2016
Structured Clinical Interview for the PANSS: % in Remission 0.36
14
- 85 - 4
van den Berg, 2015
Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale: % Loss of Diagnosis 0.78 *
28
- 85 - 4
Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale: % in Full Remission 1.03 *
34
- 85 - 4

*p <.05

Note: For the effect sizes and implied percentile effects reported in the table, a positive number favors the intervention group and a negative number favors the comparison group. Effect sizes and implied percentile effects were calculated by the Prevention Services Clearinghouse as described in the Handbook of Standards and Procedures, Section 5.10.4 and may not align with effect sizes reported in individual publications.

Only publications with eligible contrasts that met design and execution standards are included in the individual study findings table.

Full citations for the studies shown in the table are available in the "Studies Reviewed" section.

Sometimes study results are reported in more than one document, or a single document reports results from multiple studies. Studies are identified below by their Prevention Services Clearinghouse study identification numbers.

Studies Rated High

Study 11025

Nacasch, N., Foa, E. B., Huppert, J. D., Tzur, D., Fostick, L., Dinstein, Y., Polliack, M., & Zohar, J. (2011). Prolonged Exposure Therapy for combat- and terror-related posttraumatic stress disorder: A randomized control comparison with treatment as usual. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 72(9), 1174-1180. https://doi.org/10.4088/JCP.09m05682blu


Studies Rated Moderate

Study 10967

van den Berg, D. P. G., de Bont, P. A. J. M., van der Vleugel, B. M., de Roos, C., de Jongh, A., Van Minnen, A., & van der Gaag, M. (2015). Prolonged Exposure vs Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing vs waiting list for posttraumatic stress disorder in patients with a psychotic disorder: A randomized clinical trial. JAMA Psychiatry, 72(3), 259-267. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2014.2637

de Bont, P. A., van den Berg, D. P., van der Vleugel, B. M., de Roos, C., Mulder, C. L., Becker, E. S., de Jongh, A., van der Gaag, M., & van Minnen, A. (2013). A multi-site single blind clinical study to compare the effects of Prolonged Exposure, Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing and waiting list on patients with a current diagnosis of psychosis and co morbid post traumatic stress disorder: Study protocol for the randomized controlled trial Treating Trauma in Psychosis. Trials, 14(1), 151-151. https://doi.org/10.1186/1745-6215-14-151

de Bont, P. A. J. M., van den Berg, D. P. G., van der Vleugel, B. M., de Roos, C., de Jongh, A., van der Gaag, M., & van Minnen, A. M. (2016). Prolonged exposure and EMDR for PTSD v. a PTSD waiting-list condition: Effects on symptoms of psychosis, depression and social functioning in patients with chronic psychotic disorders. Psychological Medicine, 46(11), 2411-2421. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291716001094

van den Berg, D. P. G., van der Vleugel, B. M., de Bont, P. A. J. M., Staring, A. B. P., Kraan, T., Ising, H., de Roos, C., de Jongh, A., van Minnen, A., & van der Gaag, M. (2016). Predicting trauma-focused treatment outcome in psychosis. Schizophrenia Research, 176(2/3), 239-244. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2016.07.016

van den Berg, D. P. G., de Bont, P. A. J. M., van der Vleugel, B. M., de Roos, C., de Jongh, A., van Minnen, A., & van der Gaag, M. (2016). Trauma-focused treatment in PTSD patients with psychosis: Symptom exacerbation, adverse events, and revictimization. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 42(3), 693-702. https://doi.org/10.1093/schbul/sbv172

van Minnen, A., van der Vleugel, B. M., van den Berg, D. P. G., de Bont, P. A. J. M., de Roos, C., van der Gaag, M., & de Jongh, A. (2016). Effectiveness of trauma-focused treatment for patients with psychosis with and without the dissociative subtype of post-traumatic stress disorder. British Journal of Psychiatry, 209(4), 347-348. https://doi.org/10.1192/bjp.bp.116.185579

van den Berg, D., de Bont, P. A. J. M., van der Vleugel, B. M., de Roos, C., de Jongh, A., van Minnen, A., & van der Gaag, M. (2018). Long-term outcomes of trauma-focused treatment in psychosis. British Journal of Psychiatry, 212(3), 180-182. https://doi.org/10.1192/bjp.2017.30

de Bont, P. A. J. M., van der Vleugel, B. M., van den Berg, D. P. G., de Roos, C., Lokkerbol, J., Smit, F., de Jongh, A., van der Gaag, M., & van Minnen, A. (2019). Health-economic benefits of treating trauma in psychosis. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 10(1). Https://doi.org/10.1080/20008198.2018.1565032

Study 11065

Wells, A., Walton, D., Lovell, K., & Proctor, D. (2015). Metacognitive Therapy versus Prolonged Exposure in adults with chronic post-traumatic stress disorder: A parallel randomized controlled trial. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 39(1), 70-80. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-014-9636-6

Study 10986

Shalev, A. Y., Ankri, Y., Israeli-Shalev, Y., Peleg, T., Adessky, R., & Freedman, S. (2012). Prevention of posttraumatic stress disorder by early treatment: Results from the Jerusalem Trauma Outreach And Prevention Study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 69(2), 166-176. https://doi.org/10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2011.127

Galatzer-Levy, I. R., Ankri, Y., Freedman, S., Israeli-Shalev, Y., Roitman, P., Gilad, M., & Shalev, A. Y. (2013). Early PTSD symptom trajectories: persistence, recovery, and response to treatment: Results from the Jerusalem Trauma Outreach and Prevention Study (J-TOPS). PloS One, 8(8), e70084. https://doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0070084

Shalev, A. Y., Ankri, Y., Gilad, M., Israeli-Shalev, Y., Adessky, R., Qian, M., & Freedman, S. (2016). Long-term outcome of early interventions to prevent posttraumatic stress disorder. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 77(5), e580-e587. https://doi.org/10.4088/JCP.15m09932

Horesh, D., Qian, M., Freedman, S., & Shalev, A. (2017). Differential effect of exposure-based therapy and cognitive therapy on post-traumatic stress disorder symptom clusters: A randomized controlled trial. Psychology & Psychotherapy: Theory, Research & Practice, 90(2), 235-243. https://doi.org/10.1111/papt.12103

Study 10958

Foa, E. B., Dancu, C. V., Hembree, E. A., Jaycox, L. H., Meadows, E. A., & Street, G. P. (1999). A comparison of exposure therapy, Stress Inoculation Training, and their combination for reducing posttraumatic stress disorder in female assault victims. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 67(2), 194-200.

Zoellner, L. A., Feeny, N. C., Fitzgibbons, L. A., & Foa, E. B. (1999). Response of African American and Caucasian women to Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for PTSD. Behavior Therapy, 30(4), 581-595. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0005-7894(99)80026-4

Feeny, N. C., Zoellner, L. A., & Foa, E. B. (2002). Treatment outcome for chronic PTSD among female assault victims with borderline personality characteristics: A preliminary examination. Journal of Personality Disorders, 16(1), 30-40.

Cahill, S. P., Rauch, S. A., Hembree, E. A., & Foa, E. B. (2003). Effect of cognitive-behavioral treatments for PTSD on anger. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 17(2), 113-131. https://doi.org/10.1891/jcop.17.2.113.57434

Foa, E. B. (1997). Trauma and women: Course, predictors, and treatment. The Journal of clinical psychiatry, 58 Suppl 9, 25-28.

Study 11004

Johnson, D. R., & Lubin, H. (2006). The counting method: Applying the rule of parsimony to the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder. Traumatology, 12(1), 83-99. https://doi.org/10.1177/153476560601200106

Study 10975

Feske, U. (2008). Treating low-income and minority women with posttraumatic stress disorder: A pilot study comparing Prolonged Exposure and treatment as usual conducted by community therapists. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 23(8), 1027-1040.

Study 11016

Rothbaum, B. O., Astin, M. C., & Marsteller, F. (2005). Prolonged Exposure versus Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) for PTSD rape victims. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 18(6), 607-616.

Leiner, A. S., Kearns, M. C., Jackson, J. L., Astin, M. C., & Rothbaum, B. O. (2012). Avoidant coping and treatment outcome in rape-related posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 80(2), 317-321. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0026814

Study 11029

Norman, S. B., Davis, B. C., Colvonen, P. J., Haller, M., Myers, U. S., Trim, R. S., Bogner, R., & Robinson, S. K. (2016). Prolonged Exposure with veterans in a residential substance use treatment program. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 23(2), 162-172. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpra.2015.08.002

Study 10977

Foa, E. D., Rothbaum, B. O., Riggs, D. S., & Murdock, T. A. (1991). Treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder in rape victims: A comparison between cognitive-behavioral procedures and counseling. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 59(5), 715-723.

Study 10991

Ghafoori, B., Wolf, M. G., Nylund-Gibson, K., Felix, E. D., & Wolf, M. G. (2019). A naturalistic study exploring mental health outcomes following trauma-focused treatment among diverse survivors of crime and violence. Journal of Affective Disorders, 245, 617-625. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2018.11.060

Ghafoori, B., & Khoo, S. F. (2020). A pilot study of racial and ethnic differences in mental health outcomes during the first 6 weeks of trauma-focused treatment. Community Mental Health Journal. Https://doi.org/10.1007/s10597-020-00620-9

Study 10981

Foa, E. B., & Williams, M. T. (2010). Methodology of a randomized double-blind clinical trial for comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder and alcohol dependence. Mental Health and Substance Use: Dual Diagnosis, 3(2), 131-147.

Foa, E. B., Yusko, D. A., McLean, C. P., Suvak, M. K., Bux Jr, D. A., Oslin, D., O'Brien, C. P., Imms, P., Riggs, D. S., Volpicelli, J., & Bux, D. A., Jr. (2013). Concurrent naltrexone and Prolonged Exposure Therapy for patients with comorbid alcohol dependence and PTSD: A randomized clinical trial. JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association, 310(5), 488-495. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2013.8268

Walker, T. (2013). Naltrexone plus Prolonged Exposure Therapy helps alcohol-dependent PTSD patients. Formulary, 48(9), 277-277.

McLean, C. P., Su, Y.-J., & Foa, E. B. (2014). Posttraumatic stress disorder and alcohol dependence: Does order of onset make a difference? Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 28(8), 894-901. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.janxdis.2014.09.023

McLean, C. P., Su, Y.-J., & Foa, E. B. (2015). Mechanisms of symptom reduction in a combined treatment for comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder and alcohol dependence. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 83(3), 655-661. https://doi.org/10.1037/ccp0000024

Kaczkurkin, A. N., Asnaani, A., Alpert, E., & Foa, E. B. (2016). The impact of treatment condition and the lagged effects of PTSD symptom severity and alcohol use on changes in alcohol craving. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 79, 7-14. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2016.02.001

Zandberg, L. J., Rosenfield, D., McLean, C. P., Powers, M. B., Asnaani, A., & Foa, E. B. (2016). Concurrent treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder and alcohol dependence: Predictors and moderators of outcome. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 84(1), 43-56. https://doi.org/10.1037/ccp0000052

Zandberg, L. J., Rosenfield, D., Alpert, E., McLean, C. P., & Foa, E. B. (2016). Predictors of dropout in concurrent treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder and alcohol dependence: Rate of improvement matters. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 80, 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2016.02.005

Zang, Y., Yu, J., Chazin, D., Asnaani, A., Zandberg, L. J., & Foa, E. B. (2017). Changes in coping behavior in a randomized controlled trial of concurrent treatment for PTSD and alcohol dependence. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 90, 9-15. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2016.11.013

Study 10987

Resick, P. A., Nishith, P., Weaver, T. L., Astin, M. C., & Feuer, C. A. (2002). A comparison of Cognitive-Processing Therapy with Prolonged Exposure and a waiting condition for the treatment of chronic posttraumatic stress disorder in female rape victims. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 70(4), 867-879.

Nishith, P., Resick, P. A., & Griffin, M. G. (2002). Pattern of change in Prolonged Exposure and Cognitive-Processing Therapy for female rape victims with posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 70(4), 880-886.

Resick, P. A., Nishith, P., & Griffin, M. G. (2003). How well does cognitive-behavioral therapy treat symptoms of complex PTSD? An examination of child sexual abuse survivors within a clinical trial. CNS Spectrums, 8(5), 340-355.

Nishith, P., Nixon, R. D. V., & Resick, P. A. (2005). Resolution of trauma-related guilt following treatment of PTSD in female rape victims: A result of Cognitive Processing Therapy targeting comorbid depression? Journal of Affective Disorders, 86(2-3), 259-265.

Rizvi, S. L., Vogt, D. S., & Resick, P. A. (2009). Cognitive and affective predictors of treatment outcome in Cognitive Processing Therapy and Prolonged Exposure for posttraumatic stress disorder. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 47(9), 737-743. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2009.06.003

Gallagher, M. W., & Resick, P. A. (2012). Mechanisms of change in Cognitive Processing Therapy and Prolonged Exposure Therapy for PTSD: Preliminary evidence for the differential effects of hopelessness and habituation. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 36(6). Https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-011-9423-6

Resick, P. A., Williams, L. F., Suvak, M. K., Monson, C. M., & Gradus, J. L. (2012). Long-Term outcomes of cognitive-behavioral treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder among female rape survivors. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 80(2), 201-210. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0026602

Gradus, J. L., Suvak, M. K., Wisco, B. E., Marx, B. P., & Resick, P. A. (2013). Treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder reduces suicidal ideation. Depression & Anxiety (1091-4269), 30(10), 1046-1053. https://doi.org/10.1002/da.22117

Gutner, C. A., Casement, M. D., Stavitsky Gilbert, K., & Resick, P. A. (2013). Change in sleep symptoms across Cognitive Processing Therapy and Prolonged Exposure: A longitudinal perspective. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 51(12), 817-822. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2013.09.008

Wachen, J. S., Jimenez, S., Smith, K., & Resick, P. A. (2014). Long-term functional outcomes of women receiving Cognitive Processing Therapy and Prolonged Exposure. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 6(Suppl 1), S58-S65. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0035741

Scher, C. D., Suvak, M. K., & Resick, P. A. (2017). Trauma cognitions are related to symptoms up to 10 years after cognitive behavioral treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice & Policy, 9(6), 750-757. https://doi.org/10.1037/tra0000258

Gutner, C. A., Suvak, M. K., Sloan, D. M., & Resick, P. A. (2016). Does timing matter? Examining the impact of session timing on outcome. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 84(12), 1108-1115.

Keefe, J. R., Wiltsey Stirman, S., Cohen, Z. D., DeRubeis, R. J., Smith, B. N., & Resick, P. A. (2018). In rape trauma PTSD, patient characteristics indicate which trauma-focused treatment they are most likely to complete. Depression & Anxiety (1091-4269), 35(4), 330-338. https://doi.org/10.1002/da.22731

Galovski, T. E., Monson, C., Bruce, S. E., Resick, P. A., Galovski, T. E., Monson, C., Bruce, S. E., & Resick, P. A. (2009). Does cognitive-behavioral therapy for PTSD improve perceived health and sleep impairment? Journal of Traumatic Stress, 22(3), 197-204. https://doi.org/10.1002/jts.20418

Stein, N. R., Dickstein, B. D., Schuster, J., Litz, B. T., Resick, P. A., Stein, N. R., Dickstein, B. D., Schuster, J., Litz, B. T., & Resick, P. A. (2012). Trajectories of response to treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder. Behavior Therapy, 43(4), 790-800. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.beth.2012.04.003

Resick, P. A., Suvak, M. K., & Wells, S. Y. (2014). The impact of childhood abuse among women with assault-related PTSD receiving short-term cognitive-behavioral therapy. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 27(5), 558-567. https://doi.org/10.1002/jts.21951

Larsen, S. E., Fleming, C. J. E., & Resick, P. A. (2019). Residual symptoms following empirically supported treatment for PTSD. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice & Policy, 11(2), 207-215. https://doi.org/10.1037/tra0000384


Studies Rated Low

Study 11028

Nidich, S., Mills, P. J., Rainforth, M., Heppner, P., Schneider, R. H., Rosenthal, N. E., Salerno, J., Gaylord-King, C., & Rutledge, T. (2018). Non-trauma-focused meditation versus exposure therapy in veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder: A randomised controlled trial. The Lancet. Psychiatry, 5(12), 975-986. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2215-0366(18)30384-5

Rutledge, T., Nidich, S., Schneider, R. H., Mills, P. J., Salerno, J., Heppner, P., Gomez, M. A., Gaylord-King, C., & Rainforth, M. (2014). Design and rationale of a comparative effectiveness trial evaluating transcendental meditation against established therapies for PTSD. Contemporary Clinical Trials, 39(1), 50-56. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cct.2014.07.005

This study received a low rating because it did not meet design confound standards.
Study 10950

Reger, G. M., Koenen-Woods, P., Zetocha, K., Smolenski, D. J., Holloway, K. M., Rothbaum, B. O., Difede, J., Rizzo, A. A., Edwards-Stewart, A., Skopp, N. A., Mishkind, M., Reger, M. A., & Gahm, G. A. (2016). Randomized controlled trial of Prolonged Exposure using imaginal exposure vs. virtual reality exposure in active duty soldiers with deployment-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 84(11), 946-959. https://doi.org/10.1037/ccp0000134

Norr, A. M., Smolenski, D. J., & Reger, G. M. (2018). Effects of Prolonged Exposure and Virtual Reality Exposure on suicidal ideation in active duty soldiers: An examination of potential mechanisms. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 103, 69-74. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2018.05.009

Buck, B., Norr, A., Katz, A., Gahm, G. A., & Reger, G. M. (2019). Reductions in reported persecutory ideation and psychotic-like experiences during exposure therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder. Psychiatry Research, 272, 190-195. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2018.12.022

Norr, A. M., Bourassa, K. J., Stevens, E. S., Hawrilenko, M. J., Michael, S. T., & Reger, G. M. (2019). Relationship between change in in-vivo exposure distress and PTSD symptoms during exposure therapy for active duty soldiers. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 116, 133-137. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2019.06.013

Shulman, G. P., Buck, B. E., Gahm, G. A., Reger, G. M., & Norr, A. M. (2019). Effectiveness of the intent to complete and intent to attend intervention to predict and prevent Posttraumatic Stress Disorder treatment drop out among soldiers. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 32(5), 784-790. https://doi.org/10.1002/jts.22427

Bourassa, K. J., Stevens, E. S., Katz, A. C., Rothbaum, B. O., Reger, G. M., & Norr, A. M. (2020). The impact of exposure therapy on resting heart rate and heart rate reactivity among active-duty soldiers with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Psychosomatic Medicine, 82(1), 108-114. https://doi.org/10.1097/PSY.0000000000000758

Bourassa, K. J., Smolenski, D. J., Edwards-Stewart, A., Campbell, S. B., Reger, G. M., & Norr, A. M. (2020). The impact of Prolonged Exposure Therapy on social support and PTSD symptoms. Journal of Affective Disorders, 260, 410-417. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2019.09.036

Katz, A. C., Norr, A. M., Buck, B., Fantelli, E., Edwards-Stewart, A., Koenen-Woods, P., Zetocha, K., Smolenski, D. J., Holloway, K., Rothbaum, B. O., Difede, J., Rizzo, A., Skopp, N., Mishkind, M., Gahm, G., Reger, G. M., & Andrasik, F. (2020). Changes in physiological reactivity in response to the trauma memory during Prolonged Exposure and Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy. Https://doi.org/10.1037/tra0000567

Reger, G. M., Bourassa, K., Norr, A. M., & Buck, B. (2020). The impact of exposure therapy on stigma and mental health treatment attitudes among active duty U.S. soldiers with combat related PTSD. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 126, 98-104. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2020.05.005

This study received a low rating because none of the target outcomes met measurement standards.
Study 11059

Thorp, S. R., Stein, M. B., Jeste, D. V., Patterson, T. L., & Wetherell, J. L. (2012). Prolonged Exposure Therapy for older veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder: A pilot study. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 20(3), 276-280. https://doi.org/10.1097/JGP.0b013e3182435ee9

This study received a low rating because baseline equivalence of the intervention and comparison groups was necessary and not demonstrated.
Study 11063

Vera, M., Reyes-Rabanillo, M. L., Juarbe, D., Perez-Pedrogo, C., Olmo, A., Kichic, R., & Chaplin, W. F. (2011). Prolonged Exposure for the treatment of Spanish-speaking Puerto Ricans with posttraumatic stress disorder: A feasibility study. BMC Research Notes, 4, 415. https://doi.org/10.1186/1756-0500-4-415

This study received a low rating because baseline equivalence of the intervention and comparison groups was necessary and not demonstrated.
Study 10944

Asukai, N., Saito, A., Tsuruta, N., Kishimoto, J., & Nishikawa, T. (2010). Efficacy of exposure therapy for Japanese patients with posttraumatic stress disorder due to mixed traumatic events: A randomized controlled study. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 23(6), 744-750. https://doi.org/10.1002/jts.20589

This study received a low rating because none of the target outcomes met measurement standards.
Study 10984

Franklin, C. L., Cuccurullo, L.-A., Walton, J. L., Arseneau, J. R., & Petersen, N. J. (2017). Face to face but not in the same place: A pilot study of Prolonged Exposure Therapy. Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 18(1), 116-130. https://doi.org/10.1080/15299732.2016.1205704

This study received a low rating because baseline equivalence of the intervention and comparison groups was necessary and not demonstrated.
Study 10980

Foa, E. B., Hembree, E. A., Cahill, S. P., Rauch, S. A. M., Riggs, D. S., Feeny, N. C., & Yadin, E. (2005). Randomized trial of prolonged exposure for posttraumatic stress disorder with and without cognitive restructuring: Outcome at academic and community clinics. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73(5), 953-964.

Rauch, S. A. M., Grunfeld, T. E. E., Yadin, E., Cahill, S. P., Hembree, E., & Foa, E. B. (2009). Changes in reported physical health symptoms and social function with Prolonged Exposure Therapy for chronic posttraumatic stress disorder. Depression and anxiety, 26(8), 732-738. https://doi.org/10.1002/da.20518

This study received a low rating because none of the target outcomes met measurement standards.
Study 11005

Katz, L., Douglas, S., Zaleski, K., Williams, J., Huffman, C., & Cojucar, G. (2014). Comparing Holographic Reprocessing and Prolonged Exposure for women veterans with sexual trauma: A pilot randomized trial. Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy, 44(1), 9-19. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10879-013-9248-6

This study received a low rating because baseline equivalence of the intervention and comparison groups was necessary and not demonstrated.
Study 11034

Pacella, M., Armelie, A., Boarts, J., Wagner, G., Jones, T., Feeny, N., & Delahanty, D. (2012). The impact of Prolonged Exposure on PTSD symptoms and associated psychopathology in people living with HIV: A randomized test of concept. AIDS & Behavior, 16(5), 1327-1340. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10461-011-0076-y

This study received a low rating because baseline equivalence of the intervention and comparison groups was necessary and not demonstrated.


Studies Not Eligible for Review

Study 10940

Ahmadizadeh, M., Ahmadi, K., Anisi, J., & Ahmadi, A. B. (2013). Assessment of cognitive behavioral therapy on quality of life of patients with chronic war-related post-traumatic stress disorder. Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine, 35(4), 341-345. https://doi.org/10.4103/0253-7176.122222

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 10941

Allan, N. P., López-Castro, T., Hien, D. A., Papini, S., Killeen, T. K., Gros, D. F., Ruglass, L. M., Barrett, E., & Back, S. E. (2020). Response-to-treatment for comorbid post-traumatic stress and substance use disorders: The value of combining person- and variable-centered approaches. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 42, 725-738. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10862-020-09803-w

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 10942

Aronson, K. R., Welsh, J. A., Fedotova, A., Morgan, N. R., Perkins, D. F., & Travis, W. (2018). Treating PTSD in active duty service members using Cognitive Processing Therapy or Prolonged Exposure Therapy: Examining everyday practice at a military outpatient clinic. Military Psychology (American Psychological Association), 30(6), 465-475. https://doi.org/10.1080/08995605.2018.1478550

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4).

Study 10943

Foa, E. B., Asnaani, A., Rosenfield, D., Zandberg, L. J., Gariti, P., & Imms, P. (2017). Concurrent varenicline and prolonged exposure for patients with nicotine dependence and PTSD: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 85(9), 862-872. https://doi.org/10.1037/ccp0000213

Asnaani, A., Kaczkurkin, A. N., Fitzgerald, H. E., Jerud, A., & Foa, E. B. (2020). The association between cognitive coping strategies and treatment outcomes in smokers with PTSD. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice & Policy, 12(1), 92-100. https://doi.org/10.1037/tra0000473

Mu, W., Narine, K., Farris, S., Lieblich, S., Zang, Y., Bredemeier, K., Brown, L., & Foa, E. (2020). Trauma-related cognitions predict treatment response in smokers with PTSD: Evidence from cross-lagged panel analyses. Addictive Behaviors, 108, N.PAG-N.PAG. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2020.106376

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 10945

Back, S. E., Killeen, T., Badour, C. L., Flanagan, J. C., Allan, N. P., Ana, E. S., Lozano, B., Korte, K. J., Foa, E. B., & Brady, K. T. (2019). Concurrent treatment of substance use disorders and PTSD using prolonged exposure: A randomized clinical trial in military veterans. Addictive Behaviors, 90, 369-377. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2018.11.032

Korte, K. J., Bountress, K. E., Tomko, R. L., Killeen, T., Moran-Santa Maria, M., & Back, S. E. (2017). Integrated treatment of PTSD and substance use disorders: The mediating role of PTSD improvement in the reduction of depression. Journal of Clinical Medicine, 6(1). https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm6010009

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 10946

Jerud, A. B., Pruitt, L. D., Zoellner, L. A., & Feeny, N. C. (2016). The effects of prolonged exposure and sertraline on emotion regulation in individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 77, 62-67. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2015.12.002

Jun, J. J., Zoellner, L. A., & Feeny, N. C. (2013). Sudden gains in prolonged exposure and sertraline for chronic PTSD. Depression & Anxiety (1091-4269), 30(7), 607-613. https://doi.org/10.1002/da.22119

Jerud, A. B., Zoellner, L. A., Pruitt, L. D., & Feeny, N. C. (2014). Changes in emotion regulation in adults with and without a history of childhood abuse following posttraumatic stress disorder treatment. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 82(4), 721-730. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0036520

'Changes in emotion regulation in adults with and without a history of childhood abuse following posttraumatic stress disorder treatment': Correction to Jerud et al (2014). (2014). Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 82(5), 827-827. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0037947

Keller, S. M., Feeny, N. C., & Zoellner, L. A. (2014). Depression sudden gains and transient depression spikes during treatment for PTSD. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 82(1), 102-111. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0035286

Le, Q. A., Doctor, J. N., Zoellner, L. A., & Feeny, N. C. (2014). Cost-effectiveness of Prolonged Exposure Therapy versus pharmacotherapy and treatment choice in posttraumatic stress disorder (the Optimizing PTSD Treatment Trial): A doubly randomized preference trial. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 75(3), 222-230. https://doi.org/10.4088/JCP.13m08719

Pacella, M. L., Feeny, N., Zoellner, L., & Delahanty, D. L. (2014). The impact of PTSD treatment on the cortisol awakening response. Depression & Anxiety (1091-4269), 31(10), 862-869. https://doi.org/10.1002/da.22298

Bedard-Gilligan, M., Zoellner, L. A., & Feeny, N. C. (2017). Is trauma memory special? Trauma narrative fragmentation in PTSD: Effects of treatment and response. Clinical Psychological Science, 5(2), 212-225. https://doi.org/10.1177/2167702616676581

Cooper, A. A., Zoellner, L. A., Roy-Byrne, P., Mavissakalian, M. R., & Feeny, N. C. (2017). Do changes in trauma-related beliefs predict PTSD symptom improvement in prolonged exposure and sertraline? Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 85(9), 873-882. https://doi.org/10.1037/ccp0000220

Cooper, A. A., Kline, A. C., Graham, B., Bedard-Gilligan, M., Mello, P. G., Feeny, N. C., & Zoellner, L. A. (2017). Homework "dose," type, and helpfulness as predictors of clinical outcomes in Prolonged Exposure for PTSD. Behavior Therapy, 48(2), 182-194. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.beth.2016.02.013

Bedard-Gilligan, M., Garcia, N., Zoellner, L. A., & Feeny, N. C. (2018). Alcohol, cannabis, and other drug use: Engagement and outcome in PTSD treatment. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 32(3), 277-288. https://doi.org/10.1037/adb0000355

Burton, M. S., Feeny, N. C., Connell, A. M., & Zoellner, L. A. (2018). Exploring evidence of a dissociative subtype in PTSD: Baseline symptom structure, etiology, and treatment efficacy for those who dissociate. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 86(5), 439-451. https://doi.org/10.1037/ccp0000297

Le, Q. A., Doctor, J. N., Zoellner, L. A., & Feeny, N. C. (2018). Effects of treatment, choice, and preference on health-related quality-of-life outcomes in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Quality of Life Research, 27(6), 1555-1562. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11136-018-1833-4

Graham, B., Garcia, N. M., Burton, M. S., Cooper, A. A., Roy-Byrne, P. P., Mavissakalian, M. R., Feeny, N. C., & Zoellner, L. A. (2018). High expectancy and early response produce optimal effects in sertraline treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder. British Journal of Psychiatry, 213(6), 704-708. https://doi.org/10.1192/bjp.2018.211

Zoellner, L. A., Roy-Byrne, P. P., Mavissakalian, M., & Feeny, N. C. (2019). Doubly randomized preference trial of prolonged exposure versus sertraline for treatment of PTSD. American Journal of Psychiatry, 176(4), 287-296. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2018.17090995

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4).

Study 10947

Beidel, D. C., Neer, S. M., Bowers, C. A., Newins, A. R., Tuerk, P. W., Cunningham, C. A., Mooney, S. R., Hauck, H. N., & Jett, M. (2019). Trauma Management Therapy and Prolonged Exposure Therapy for PTSD in an active duty sample: Design and methodology of a randomized clinical trial. Contemporary Clinical Trials Communications, 17, 100491. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conctc.2019.100491

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4).

Study 10948

Nosen, E., Littlefield, A. K., Schumacher, J. A., Stasiewicz, P. R., & Coffey, S. F. (2014). Treatment of co-occurring PTSD-AUD: Effects of exposure-based and non-trauma focused psychotherapy on alcohol and trauma cue-reactivity. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 61, 35-42. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2014.07.003

Coffey, S. F., Schumacher, J. A., Nosen, E., Littlefield, A. K., Henslee, A. M., Lappen, A., & Stasiewicz, P. R. (2016). Trauma-focused exposure therapy for chronic posttraumatic stress disorder in alcohol and drug dependent patients: A randomized controlled trial. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 778-790.

Belleau, E. L., Chin, E. G., Wanklyn, S. G., Zambrano-Vazquez, L., Schumacher, J. A., & Coffey, S. F. (2017). Pre-treatment predictors of dropout from Prolonged Exposure Therapy in patients with chronic posttraumatic stress disorder and comorbid substance use disorders. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 91, 43-50. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2017.01.011

Peck, K. R., Schumacher, J. A., Stasiewicz, P. R., & Coffey, S. F. (2018). Adults with comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder, alcohol use disorder, and opioid use disorder: The effectiveness of modified prolonged exposure. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 31(3), 373-382. https://doi.org/10.1002/jts.22291

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4).

Study 10949

Bountress, K. E., Badour, C., Flanagan, J., Gilmore, A. K., & Back, S. E. (2018). Treatment of co-occurring posttraumatic stress disorder and substance use: Does order of onset influence outcomes? Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy, 10(6), 662-665. https://doi.org/10.1037/tra0000309

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 10951

Boykin, D. M., Keegan, F., Thompson, K. E., Voelkel, E., Lindsay, J. A., & Fletcher, T. L. (2019). Video to home delivery of evidence-based psychotherapy to veterans with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 10, 893. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2019.00893

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4).

Study 10952

Exposure therapy, sertraline show similar efficacy in veterans with PTSD. (2019). Brown University Psychopharmacology Update, 30(4), 3-4. https://doi.org/10.1002/pu.30411

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4).

Study 10953

Patient preference makes difference in treatment of PTSD. (2019). Brown University Psychopharmacology Update, 30(2), 3-4. https://doi.org/10.1002/pu.30392

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4).

Study 10956

Bryant, R. A., Sackville, T., Dang, S. T., Moulds, M., & Guthrie, R. (1999). Treating acute stress disorder: An evaluation of Cognitive Behavior Therapy and supporting counseling techniques. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 156(11), 1780-1786.

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 10957

Bryant, R. A., Moulds, M. L., Guthrie, R. M., Dang, S. T., Mastrodomenico, J., Nixon, R. D. V., Felmingham, K. L., Hopwood, S., & Creamer, M. (2008). A randomized controlled trial of Exposure Therapy and Cognitive Restructuring for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 76(4), 695-703. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0012616

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4).

Study 10959

Norman, S. B., Trim, R., Haller, M., Davis, B. C., Myers, U. S., Colvonen, P. J., Blanes, E., Lyons, R., Siegel, E. Y., Angkaw, A. C., Norman, G. J., & Mayes, T. (2019). Efficacy of Integrated Exposure Therapy vs Integrated Coping Skills Therapy for comorbid Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Alcohol Use Disorder: A randomized clinical trial. JAMA Psychiatry, 76(8), 791-799. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2019.0638

Capone, C., Tripp, J. C., Trim, R. S., Davis, B. C., Haller, M., & Norman, S. B. (2020). Comparing exposure- and coping skills-based treatments on trauma-related guilt in veterans with co-occurring alcohol use and Posttraumatic Stress Disorders. Journal of Traumatic Stress. https://doi.org/10.1002/jts.22538

Colvonen, P. J., Straus, L. D., Drummond, S. P. A., Angkaw, A. C., & Norman, S. B. (2020). Examining sleep over time in a randomized control trial comparing two integrated PTSD and Alcohol Use Disorder treatments. Drug & Alcohol Dependence, 209, N.PAG-N.PAG. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2020.107905

Tripp, J. C., Worley, M. J., Straus, E., Angkaw, A. C., Trim, R. S., & Norman, S. B. (2020). Bidirectional relationship of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity and alcohol use over the course of integrated treatment. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 34(4), 506-511. https://doi.org/10.1037/adb0000564

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 10960

Cigrang, J. A., & Peterson, A. L. (2017). Stepped-care approaches to posttraumatic stress disorder: Sharpening tools for the clinician’s toolbox. Pragmatic Case Studies in Psychotherapy, 13(2), 142-153. https://doi.org/10.14713/pcsp.v13i2.2004

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 10961

Cloitre, M., Koenen, K. C., Cohen, L. R., & Han, H. (2002). Skills training in affective and interpersonal regulation followed by exposure: A phase-based treatment for PTSD related to childhood abuse. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 70(5), 1067-1074.

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 10962

Cloitre, M., Petkova, E., Su, Z., & Weiss, B. (2016). Patient characteristics as a moderator of post-traumatic stress disorder treatment outcome: Combining symptom burden and strengths. BJPsych Open, 2(2), 101-106.

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 10963

Cook, J. M., Dinnen, S., Thompson, R., Ruzek, J., Coyne, J. C., & Schnurr, P. P. (2015). A quantitative test of an implementation framework in 38 VA residential PTSD programs. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 42(4), 462-473. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10488-014-0590-0

Cook, J. M., Schnurr, P. P., Simiola, V., Thompson, R., Hoff, R., & Harpaz-Rotem, I. (2019). Adoption by VA residential programs of two evidence-based psychotherapies for PTSD: Effect on patient outcomes. Psychiatric Services, 70(7), 553-560. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ps.201800338

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4).

Study 10964

Feeny, N. C., Zoellner, L. A., Mavissakalian, M. R., & Roy-Byrne, P. P. (2009). What would you choose? Sertraline or prolonged exposure in community and PTSD treatment seeking women. Depression & Anxiety (1091-4269), 26(8), 724-731. https://doi.org/10.1002/da.20588

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4).

Study 10965

Wolf, G. K., Kretzmer, T., Crawford, E., Thors, C., Wagner, H. R., Strom, T. Q., Eftekhari, A., Klenk, M., Hayward, L., & Vanderploeg, R. D. (2015). Prolonged Exposure Therapy with veterans and active duty personnel diagnosed with PTSD and traumatic brain injury. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 28(4), 339-347. https://doi.org/10.1002/jts.22029

Crawford, E. F., Wolf, G. K., Kretzmer, T., Dillon, K. H., Thors, C., & Vanderploeg, R. D. (2017). Patient, therapist, and system factors influencing the effectiveness of prolonged exposure for veterans with comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder and traumatic brain injury. Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease, 205(2), 140-146. https://doi.org/10.1097/NMD.0000000000000594

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4).

Study 10966

D'Andrea, W., & Pole, N. (2012). A naturalistic study of the relation of psychotherapy process to changes in symptoms, information processing, and physiological activity in complex trauma. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 4(4), 438-446. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0025067

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4).

Study 10968

de Kleine, R. A., Smits, J. A. J., Hendriks, G.-J., Becker, E. S., & van Minnen, A. (2015). Extinction learning as a moderator of d-cycloserine efficacy for enhancing exposure therapy in posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 34, 63-67. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.janxdis.2015.06.005

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4).

Study 10969

Doane, L. S., Feeny, N. C., & Zoellner, L. A. (2010). A preliminary investigation of sudden gains in exposure therapy for PTSD. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 48(6), 555-560. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2010.02.002

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4).

Study 10970

Duran, É. P., Corchs, F., Vianna, A., Araújo, Á. C., Del Real, N., Silva, C., Ferreira, A. P., De Vitto Francez, P., Godói, C., Silveira, H., Matsumoto, L., Gebara, C. M., de Barros Neto, T. P., Chilvarquer, R., de Siqueira, L. L., Bernik, M., & Neto, F. L. (2020). A randomized clinical trial to assess the efficacy of Trial-Based Cognitive Therapy (TBCT) compared to Prolonged Exposure for post-traumatic stress disorder: Preliminary findings. CNS Spectrums, 1-26. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1092852920001455

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4).

Study 10971

Rauch, S. A. M., Kim, H. M., Powell, C., Tuerk, P. W., Simon, N. M., Acierno, R., Allard, C. B., Norman, S. B., Venners, M. R., Rothbaum, B. O., Stein, M. B., Porter, K., Martis, B., King, A. P., Liberzon, I., Phan, K. L., & Hoge, C. W. (2019). Efficacy of Prolonged Exposure Therapy, sertraline hydrochloride, and their combination among combat veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder: A randomized clinical trial. JAMA Psychiatry, 76(2), 117-126. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2018.3412

Rauch, S. A. M., Simon, N. M., Kim, H. M., Acierno, R., King, A. P., Norman, S. B., Venners, M. R., Porter, K., Phan, K. L., Tuerk, P. W., Allard, C., Liberzon, I., Rothbaum, B. O., Martis, B., Stein, M. B., & Hoge, C. W. (2018). Integrating biological treatment mechanisms into randomized clinical trials: Design of PROGrESS (PROlonGed ExpoSure and Sertraline Trial). Contemporary Clinical Trials, 64, 128-138. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cct.2017.10.013

Duval, E. R., Sheynin, J., King, A. P., Phan, K. L., Simon, N. M., Martis, B., Porter, K. E., Norman, S. B., Liberzon, I., & Rauch, S. A. M. (2020). Neural function during emotion processing and modulation associated with treatment response in a randomized clinical trial for posttraumatic stress disorder. Depression and Anxiety, 37(7), 670-681. https://doi.org/10.1002/da.23022

Joshi, S. A., Duval, E. R., Sheynin, J., King, A. P., Phan, K. L., Martis, B., Porter, K. E., Liberzon, I., & Rauch, S. A. M. (2020). Neural correlates of emotional reactivity and regulation associated with treatment response in a randomized clinical trial for posttraumatic stress disorder. Psychiatry Research. Neuroimaging, 299, 111062. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pscychresns.2020.111062

Rauch, S. A. M., King, A., Kim, H. M., Powell, C., Rajaram, N., Venners, M., Simon, N. M., Hamner, M., & Liberzon, I. (2020). Cortisol awakening response in PTSD treatment: Predictor or mechanism of change. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 118, 104714. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2020.104714

Simon, N. M., Hoeppner, S. S., Lubin, R. E., Robinaugh, D. J., Malgaroli, M., Norman, S. B., Acierno, R., Goetter, E. M., Hellberg, S. N., Charney, M. E., Bui, E., Baker, A. W., Smith, E., Kim, H. M., & Rauch, S. A. M. (2020). Understanding the impact of complicated grief on combat related posttraumatic stress disorder, guilt, suicide, and functional impairment in a clinical trial of post-9/11 service members and veterans. Depression & Anxiety (1091-4269), 37(1), 63-72. https://doi.org/10.1002/da.22911

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4).

Study 10972

Echiverri-Cohen, A., Zoellner, L. A., Gallop, R., Feeny, N., Jaeger, J., & Bedard-Gilligan, M. (2016). Changes in temporal attention inhibition following prolonged exposure and sertraline in the treatment of PTSD. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 84(5), 415-426. https://doi.org/10.1037/ccp0000080

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4).

Study 10973

Eftekhari, A., Crowley, J. J., Ruzek, J. I., Garvert, D. W., Karlin, B. E., & Rosen, C. S. (2015). Training in the implementation of Prolonged Exposure Therapy: Provider correlates of treatment outcome. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 28(1), 65-68. https://doi.org/10.1002/jts.21980

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4).

Study 10974

Felmingham, K., Kemp, A., Williams, L., Das, P., Hughes, G., Peduto, A., & Bryant, R. (2007). Changes in anterior cingulate and amygdala after cognitive behavior therapy of posttraumatic stress disorder. Psychological Science, 18(2), 127-129. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9280.2007.01860.x

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 10976

Hien, D., Ruglass, L., & Back, S. (2017). Concurrent treatment with prolonged exposure for co-occurring PTSD and substance use disorders: A randomized clinical trial. Drug & Alcohol Dependence, e88-e89. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2016.08.249

Hien, D. A., Lopez-Castro, T., Papini, S., Gorman, B., & Ruglass, L. M. (2017). Emotion dysregulation moderates the effect of cognitive behavior therapy with prolonged exposure for co-occurring PTSD and substance use disorders. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 52, 53-61. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.janxdis.2017.10.003

Ruglass, L. M., Lopez-Castro, T., Papini, S., Killeen, T., Back, S. E., & Hien, D. a. (2017). Concurrent treatment with Prolonged Exposure for co-occurring full or subthreshold posttraumatic stress disorder and substance use disorders: A randomized clinical trial. Psychotherapy & Psychosomatics, 86(3), 150-161. https://doi.org/10.1159/000462977

Hien, D. A., Smith, K. Z., Owens, M., López-Castro, T., Ruglass, L. M., & Papini, S. (2018). Lagged effects of substance use on PTSD severity in a randomized controlled trial with modified prolonged exposure and relapse prevention. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 86(10), 810-819. https://doi.org/10.1037/ccp0000345

López-Castro, T., Smith, K. Z., Nicholson, R. A., Armas, A., & Hien, D. A. (2019). Does a history of violent offending impact treatment response for comorbid PTSD and substance use disorders? A secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 97, 47-58. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsat.2018.11.009

Ruglass, L. M., & Yali, A. M. (2019). Do race/ethnicity and religious affiliation moderate treatment outcomes among individuals with co-occurring PTSD and substance use disorders? Journal of Prevention & Intervention in the Community, 47(3), 198-213. https://doi.org/10.1080/10852352.2019.1603674

Fitzpatrick, S., Saraiya, T., Lopez-Castro, T., Ruglass, L. M., & Hien, D. (2020). The impact of trauma characteristics on post-traumatic stress disorder and substance use disorder outcomes across integrated and substance use treatments. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 113, N.PAG-N.PAG. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsat.2020.01.012

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 10978

Foa, E. B., Hearst-Ikeda, D., & Perry, K. J. (1995). Evaluation of a brief cognitive-behavioral program for the prevention of chronic PTSD in recent assault victims. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 63(6), 948-955.

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 10979

Bryant, R. A., Mastrodomenico, J., Felmingham, K. L., Hopwood, S., Kenny, L., Kandris, E., Cahill, C., & Creamer, M. (2008). Treatment of acute stress disorder: A randomized controlled trial. Archives of General Psychiatry, 65(6), 659-667. https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.65.6.659

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 10982

Fonzo, G. A., Goodkind, M. S., Oathes, D. J., Zaiko, Y. V., Harvey, M., Peng, K. K., Weiss, M. E., Thompson, A. L., Zack, S. E., Lindley, S. E., Arnow, B. A., Jo, B., Gross, J. J., Rothbaum, B. O., & Etkin, A. (2017). PTSD psychotherapy outcome predicted by brain activation during emotional reactivity and regulation. American Journal of Psychiatry, 174(12), 1163-1174. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2017.16091072

Fonzo, G. A., Goodkind, M. S., Oathes, D. J., Zaiko, Y. V., Harvey, M., Peng, K. K., Weiss, M. E., Thompson, A. L., Zack, S. E., Mills-Finnerty, C. E., Rosenberg, B. M., Edelstein, R., Wright, R. N., Kole, C. A., Lindley, S. E., Arnow, B. A., Jo, B., Gross, J. J., Rothbaum, B. O., & Etkin, A. (2017). Selective effects of psychotherapy on frontopolar cortical function in PTSD. American Journal of Psychiatry, 174(12), 1175-1184. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2017.16091073

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 10983

Ford, J. D., Grasso, D. J., Greene, C. A., Slivinsky, M., & DeViva, J. C. (2018). Randomized clinical trial pilot study of prolonged exposure versus present centred affect regulation therapy for PTSD and anger problems with male military combat veterans. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 25(5), 641-649. https://doi.org/10.1002/cpp.2194

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4).

Study 10985

Freyth, C., Elsesser, K., Lohrmann, T., & Sartory, G. (2010). Effects of additional prolonged exposure to psychoeducation and relaxation in acute stress disorder. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 24(8), 909-917. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.janxdis.2010.06.016

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 10988

Sripada, R. K., Ready, D. J., Ganoczy, D., Astin, M. C., & Rauch, S. A. M. (2020). When to change the treatment plan: An analysis of diminishing returns in VA patients undergoing Prolonged Exposure and Cognitive Processing Therapy. Behavior Therapy, 51(1), 85-98. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.beth.2019.05.003

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4).

Study 10989

Gerardi, M., Rothbaum, B. O., Astin, M. C., & Kelley, M. (2010). Cortisol response following exposure treatment for PTSD in rape victims. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, 19(4), 349-356. https://doi.org/10.1080/10926771003781297

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4).

Study 10990

Ghafoori, B., Hansen, M. C., Garibay, E., & Korosteleva, O. (2017). Feasibility of training frontline therapists in Prolonged Exposure: A randomized controlled pilot study of treatment of complex trauma in diverse victims of crime and violence. Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease, 205(4), 283-293. https://doi.org/10.1097/NMD.0000000000000659

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4).

Study 10994

Glynn, S. M., Eth, S., Randolph, E. T., Foy, D. W., Urbaitis, M., Boxer, L., Paz, G. G., Leong, G. B., Firman, G., Salk, J. D., Katzman, J. W., & Crothers, J. (1999). A test of behavioral family therapy to augment exposure for combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 67(2), 243-251.

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 10995

Gros, D. F., Strachan, M., Ruggiero, K. J., Knapp, R. G., Frueh, B. C., Egede, L. E., Lejuez, C. W., Tuerk, P. W., & Acierno, R. (2011). Innovative service delivery for secondary prevention of PTSD in at-risk OIF-OEF service men and women. Contemporary Clinical Trials, 32(1), 122-128. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cct.2010.10.003

Lancaster, C., Gros, D., Acierno, R., & López, C. (2017). Residual sleep problems predict reduced response to Prolonged Exposure among Veterans with PTSD. Journal of Psychopathology & Behavioral Assessment, 39(4), 755-763. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10862-017-9618-6

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4).

Study 10996

de Bont, P. A. J. M., van Minnen, A., & de Jongh, A. (2013). Treating PTSD in patients with psychosis: A within-group controlled feasibility study examining the efficacy and safety of evidence-based PE and EMDR protocols. Behavior Therapy, 44(4), 717-730. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.beth.2013.07.002

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4).

Study 10997

Hale, A. C., Bohnert, K. M., Ganoczy, D., & Sripada, R. K. (2019). Predictors of treatment adequacy during evidence-based psychotherapy for PTSD. Psychiatric Services, 70(5), 367-373. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ps.201800361

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4).

Study 10998

Harned, M. S., Korslund, K. E., & Linehan, M. M. (2014). A pilot randomized controlled trial of Dialectical Behavior Therapy with and without the Dialectical Behavior Therapy Prolonged Exposure protocol for suicidal and self-injuring women with borderline personality disorder and PTSD. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 55, 7-17. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2014.01.008

Harned, M. S., Wilks, C. R., Schmidt, S. C., & Coyle, T. N. (2018). Improving functional outcomes in women with borderline personality disorder and PTSD by changing PTSD severity and post-traumatic cognitions. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 103, 53-61. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2018.02.002

Harned, M. S., Fitzpatrick, S., & Schmidt, S. C. (2020). Identifying change targets for posttraumatic stress disorder among suicidal and self-injuring women with borderline personality disorder. Journal of Traumatic Stress. https://doi.org/10.1002/jts.22504

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 11000

Hernandez-Tejada, M. A., Muzzy, W., Price, M., Hamski, S., Hart, S., Foa, E., & Acierno, R. (2020). Peer support during in vivo exposure homework to reverse attrition from Prolonged Exposure Therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD): Description of a randomized controlled trial. Trials, 21(1), 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13063-020-04302-5

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4).

Study 11002

Ironson, G., Freud, B., Strauss, J. L., & Williams, J. (2002). Comparison for two treatments for traumatic stress: A community-based study of EMDR and prolonged exposure. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 58(1), 113-128. https://doi.org/10.1002/jclp.1132

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4).

Study 11003

Jeffreys, M. D., Reinfeld, C., Nair, P. V., Garcia, H. A., Mata-Galan, E., & Rentz, T. O. (2014). Evaluating treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder with Cognitive Processing Therapy and Prolonged Exposure Therapy in a VHA specialty clinic. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 28(1), 108-114. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.janxdis.2013.04.010

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4).

Study 11006

Harned, M. S., Korslund, K. E., Foa, E. B., & Linehan, M. M. (2012). Treating PTSD in suicidal and self-injuring women with borderline personality disorder: Development and preliminary evaluation of a Dialectical Behavior Therapy Prolonged Exposure Protocol. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 50(6), 381-386. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2012.02.011

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 11007

Kehle-Forbes, S. M., Chen, S., Polusny, M. A., Lynch, K. G., Koffel, E., Ingram, E., Foa, E. B., Van Horn, D. H. A., Drapkin, M. L., Yusko, D. A., & Oslin, D. W. (2019). A randomized controlled trial evaluating integrated versus phased application of evidence-based psychotherapies for military veterans with comorbid PTSD and substance use disorders. Drug & Alcohol Dependence, 205, N.PAG-N.PAG. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2019.107647

Kehle-Forbes, S. M., Drapkin, M. L., Foa, E. B., Koffel, E., Lynch, K. G., Polusny, M. A., Van Horn, D. H. A., Yusko, D. A., Charlesworth, M., Blasco, M., & Oslin, D. W. (2016). Study design, interventions, and baseline characteristics for the Substance use and TRauma Intervention for VEterans (STRIVE) trial. Contemporary Clinical Trials, 50, 45-53. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cct.2016.07.017

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 11008

Keller, S. M., Zoellner, L. A., & Feeny, N. C. (2010). Understanding factors associated with early therapeutic alliance in PTSD treatment: Adherence, childhood sexual abuse history, and social support. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 78(6), 974-979. https://doi.apa.org/doiLanding?doi=10.1037%2Fa0020758

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4).

Study 11009

Krystal, J. H. (2012). Enhancing Prolonged Exposure Therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder with D-cycloserine: Further support for treatments that promote experience-dependent neuroplasticity. Biological Psychiatry, 71(11), 932-934. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2012.03.031

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4).

Study 11010

Kuckertz, J. M., Amir, N., Boffa, J. W., Warren, C. K., Rindt, S. E. M., Norman, S., Ram, V., Ziajko, L., Webb-Murphy, J., & McLay, R. (2014). The effectiveness of an attention bias modification program as an adjunctive treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 63, 25-35. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2014.09.002

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 11011

Harned, M. S., Gallop, R. J., & Valenstein-Mah, H. R. (2018). What changes when? The course of improvement during a stage-based treatment for suicidal and self-injuring women with borderline personality disorder and PTSD. Psychotherapy Research, 28(5), 761-775. https://doi.org/10.1080/10503307.2016.1252865

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 11012

Lancaster, C. L., Gros, D. F., Mullarkey, M. C., Badour, C. L., Killeen, T. K., Brady, K. T., & Back, S. E. (2020). Does trauma-focused exposure therapy exacerbate symptoms among patients with comorbid PTSD and substance use disorders? Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 48(1), 38-53. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1352465819000304

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 11013

Larsen, S. E., Wiltsey Stirman, S., Smith, B. N., & Resick, P. A. (2016). Symptom exacerbations in trauma-focused treatments: Associations with treatment outcome and non-completion. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 77, 68-77. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2015.12.009

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4).

Study 11014

Laugharne, J., Kullack, C., Lee, C. W., McGuire, T., Brockman, S., Drummond, P. D., & Starkstein, S. (2016). Amygdala volumetric change following psychotherapy for posttraumatic stress disorder. The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 28(4), 312-318. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.neuropsych.16010006

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4).

Study 11015

Lee, C., Gavriel, H., Drummond, P., Richards, J., & Greenwald, R. (2002). Treatment of PTSD: Stress Inoculation Training with Prolonged Exposure compared to EMDR. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 58(9), 1071-1089.

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 11017

Lester, K., Artz, C., Resick, P. A., & Young-Xu, Y. (2010). Impact of race on early treatment termination and outcomes in posttraumatic stress disorder treatment. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 78(4), 480-489. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0019551

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4).

Study 11018

Litz, B. T., Salters-Pedneault, K., Steenkamp, M. M., Hermos, J. A., Bryant, R. A., Otto, M. W., & Hofmann, S. G. (2012). A randomized placebo-controlled trial of D-cycloserine and exposure therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 46(9), 1184-1190. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2012.05.006

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 11019

Maples‐Keller, J. L., Post, L. M., Price, M., Goodnight, J. M., Burton, M. S., Yasinski, C. W., Michopoulos, V., Stevens, J. S., Hinrichs, R., Rothbaum, A. O., Hudak, L., Houry, D., Jovanovic, T., Ressler, K., Rothbaum, B. O., & Maples-Keller, J. L. (2020). Investigation of optimal dose of early intervention to prevent posttraumatic stress disorder: A multiarm randomized trial of one and three sessions of modified Prolonged Exposure. Depression & Anxiety (1091-4269), 37(5), 429-437. https://doi.org/10.1002/da.23015

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 11020

Markowitz, J. C., Petkova, E., Neria, Y., Van Meter, P. E., Zhao, Y., Hembree, E., Lovell, K., Biyanova, T., & Marshall, R. D. (2015). Is exposure necessary? A randomized clinical trial of Interpersonal Psychotherapy for PTSD. American Journal of Psychiatry, 172(5), 430-440. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2014.14070908

Markowitz, J. C., Petkova, E., Biyanova, T., Ding, K., Suh, E. J., & Neria, Y. (2015). Exploring personality diagnosis stability following acute psychotherapy for chronic posttraumatic stress disorder. Depression & Anxiety (1091-4269), 32(12), 919-926. https://doi.org/10.1002/da.22436

Markowitz, J. C., Meehan, K. B., Petkova, E., Zhao, Y., Van Meter, P. E., Neria, Y., Pessin, H., & Nazia, Y. (2016). Treatment preferences of psychotherapy patients with chronic PTSD. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 77(3), 363-370. https://doi.org/10.4088/JCP.14m09640

Markowitz, J. C., Neria, Y., Lovell, K., Meter, P. E., Petkova, E., & Van Meter, P. E. (2017). History of sexual trauma moderates psychotherapy outcome for posttraumatic stress disorder. Depression & Anxiety (1091-4269), 34(8), 692-700. https://doi.org/10.1002/da.22619

Markowitz, J. C., Choo, T.-H., & Neria, Y. (2018). Do acute benefits of Interpersonal Psychotherapy for posttraumatic stress disorder endure? Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 63(1), 37-43. https://doi.org/10.1177/0706743717720690

Suarez-Jimenez, B., Zhu, X., Lazarov, A., Mann, J. J., Schneier, F., Gerber, A., Barber, J. P., Chambless, D. L., Neria, Y., Milrod, B., & Markowitz, J. C. (2020). Anterior hippocampal volume predicts affect-focused psychotherapy outcome. Psychological Medicine, 50(3), 396-402. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291719000187

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 11021

Marks, I., Lovell, K., Noshirvani, H., Livanou, M., & Thrasher, S. (1998). Treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder by exposure and/or cognitive restructuring: A controlled study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 55(4), 317-325. https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.55.4.317

Lovell, K., Marks, I. M., Noshirvani, H., Thrasher, S., & Livanou, M. (2001). Do cognitive and exposure treatments improve various PTSD symptoms differently? A randomized controlled trial. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 29(1), 107-112. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1352465801001126

Livanou, M., Başoglu, M., Marks, I. M., De, S. P., Noshirvani, H., Lovell, K., & Thrasher, S. (2002). Beliefs, sense of control and treatment outcome in post-traumatic stress disorder. Psychological Medicine, 32(1), 157-165.

Thrasher, S., Power, M., Morant, N., Marks, I., & Dalgleish, T. (2010). Social support moderates outcomes in a randomized controlled trial of exposure therapy and (or) cognitive restructuring for chronic posttraumatic stress disorder. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry / La Revue canadienne de psychiatrie, 55(3), 187-190.

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 11022

McLean, C. P., Rauch, S. A. M., Foa, E. B., Sripada, R. K., Tannahill, H. S., Mintz, J., Yarvis, J., Young-McCaughan, S., Dondanville, K. A., Hall-Clark, B. N., Fina, B. A., Keane, T. M., & Peterson, A. L. (2018). Design of a randomized controlled trial examining the efficacy and biological mechanisms of Web-Prolonged Exposure and Present-Centered Therapy for PTSD among active-duty military personnel and veterans. Contemporary Clinical Trials, 64, 41-48. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cct.2017.11.008

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 11023

Mills, K. L., Teesson, M., Back, S. E., Brady, K. T., Baker, A. L., Hopwood, S., Sannibale, C., Barrett, E. L., Merz, S., Rosenfeld, J., Ewer, P. L., Mills, K. L., Teesson, M., Back, S. E., Brady, K. T., Baker, A. L., Hopwood, S., Sannibale, C., Barrett, E. L., & Merz, S. (2012). Integrated exposure-based therapy for co-occurring posttraumatic stress disorder and substance dependence: A randomized controlled trial. JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association, 308(7), 690-699. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2012.9071

Mills, K. L., Barrett, E. L., Merz, S., Rosenfeld, J., Ewer, P. L., Sannibale, C., Baker, A. L., Hopwood, S., Back, S. E., Brady, K. T., & Teesson, M. (2016). Integrated exposure-based therapy for co-occurring post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance dependence: Predictors of change in PTSD symptom severity. Journal of Clinical Medicine, 5(11).

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 11024

Mirabella, R. F., Frueh, B. C., & Fossey, M. D. (1995). Exposure therapy and antidepressant medication for treatment of chronic PTSD. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 152(6), 955-956.

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 11026

Neylan, T. C. (2017). Frontal lobe moderators and mediators of response to exposure therapy in PTSD. American Journal of Psychiatry, 174(12), 1131-1133. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2017.17091056

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4).

Study 11027

Bryant, R. A., Kenny, L., Rawson, N., Cahill, C., Joscelyne, A., Garber, B., Tockar, J., Dawson, K., & Nickerson, A. (2019). Efficacy of exposure-based cognitive behaviour therapy for post-traumatic stress disorder in emergency service personnel: A randomised clinical trial. Psychological Medicine, 49(9), 1565-1573. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291718002234

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 11030

Ogundele, O. M., Ebenezer, P. J., Lee, C. C., & Francis, J. (2017). Stress-altered synaptic plasticity and DAMP signaling in the hippocampus-PFC axis; elucidating the significance of IGF-1/IGF-1R/CaMKIIα expression in neural changes associated with a Prolonged Exposure Therapy. Neuroscience, 353, 147-165. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2017.04.008

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 11031

Øktedalen, T., Hoffart, A., & Langkaas, T. F. (2015). Trauma-related shame and guilt as time-varying predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms during imagery exposure and imagery rescripting--A randomized controlled trial. Psychotherapy Research: Journal of the Society for Psychotherapy Research, 25(5), 518-532. https://doi.org/10.1080/10503307.2014.917217

Langkaas, T. F., Hoffart, A., Øktedalen, T., Ulvenes, P. G., Hembree, E. A., & Smucker, M. (2017). Exposure and non-fear emotions: A randomized controlled study of exposure-based and rescripting-based imagery in PTSD treatment. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 97, 33-42. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2017.06.007

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4).

Study 11032

Oprel, D. A. C., Hoeboer, C. M., Schoorl, M., De Kleine, R. A., Wigard, I. G., Cloitre, M., Van Minnen, A., & Van der Does, W. (2018). Improving treatment for patients with childhood abuse related posttraumatic stress disorder (IMPACT study): Protocol for a multicenter randomized trial comparing prolonged exposure with intensified prolonged exposure and phase-based treatment. BMC Psychiatry, 18(1), 385. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12888-018-1967-5

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4).

Study 11033

Osuch, E. A., Benson, B. E., Luckenbaugh, D. A., Geraci, M., Post, R. M., & McCann, U. (2009). Repetitive TMS combined with exposure therapy for PTSD: A preliminary study. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 23(1), 54-59. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.janxdis.2008.03.015

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 11035

Paunovic, N., & Ost, L. G. (2001). Cognitive-behavior therapy vs exposure therapy in the treatment of PTSD in refugees. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 39(10), 1183-1197.

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4).

Study 11036

Peterson, A. L., Foa, E. B., Resick, P. A., Hoyt, T. V., Straud, C. L., Moore, B. A., Favret, J. V., Hale, W. J., Litz, B. T., Rogers, T. E., Stone, J. M., Villarreal, R., Woodson, C. S., Young-McCaughan, S., & Mintz, J. (2020). A nonrandomized trial of Prolonged Exposure and Cognitive Processing Therapy for combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder in a deployed setting. Behavior Therapy. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.beth.2020.01.003

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4).

Study 11037

Pile, V., Barnhofer, T., & Wild, J. (2015). Updating versus exposure to prevent consolidation of conditioned fear. PloS One, 10(4), e0122971. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0122971

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 11038

Popiel, A., Zawadzki, B., Pragłowska, E., & Teichman, Y. (2015). Prolonged exposure, paroxetine and the combination in the treatment of PTSD following a motor vehicle accident: A randomized clinical trial—The 'TRAKT' study. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 48, 17-26. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbtep.2015.01.002

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4).

Study 11039

Powers, M. B., Kauffman, B. Y., Kleinsasser, A. L., Lee-Furman, E., Smits, J. A. J., Zvolensky, M. J., & Rosenfield, D. (2016). Efficacy of smoking cessation therapy alone or integrated with Prolonged Exposure Therapy for smokers with PTSD: Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Contemporary Clinical Trials, 50, 213-221. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cct.2016.08.012

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 11040

Ragsdale, K. A., & Voss Horrell, S. C. (2016). Effectiveness of Prolonged Exposure and Cognitive Processing Therapy for U.S. veterans with a history of traumatic brain injury. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 29(5), 474-477. https://doi.org/10.1002/jts.22130

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4).

Study 11044

Schnurr, P. P., Friedman, M. J., Engel, C. C., Foa, E. B., Shea, M. T., Chow, B. K., Resick, P. A., Thurston, V., Orsillo, S. M., Haug, R., Turner, C., & Bernardy, N. (2007). Cognitive behavioral therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder in women: A randomized controlled trial. JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association, 297(8), 820-830.

Schnurr, P. P., Friedman, M. J., Engel, C. C., Foa, E. B., Shea, M. T., Resick, P. M., James, K. E., & Chow, B. K. (2005). Issues in the design of multisite clinical trials of psychotherapy: VA Cooperative Study No. 494 as an example. Contemporary Clinical Trials, 26(6), 626-636.

Schnurr, P. P., Lunney, C. A., Forshay, E., Thurston, V. L., Chow, B. K., Resick, P. A., & Foa, E. B. (2009). Sexual function outcomes in women treated for posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Women's Health (15409996), 18(10), 1549-1557. https://doi.org/10.1089/jwh.2008.1165

Schnurr, P. P., & Lunney, C. A. (2012). Work-related outcomes among female veterans and service members after treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder. Psychiatric Services, 63(11), 1072-1079. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ps.201100415

Rosen, C. S., Greenbaum, M. A., Schnurr, P. P., Holmes, T. H., Brennan, P. L., & Friedman, M. J. (2013). Do benzodiazepines reduce the effectiveness of exposure therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder? The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 74(12), 1241-1248. https://doi.org/10.4088/JCP.13m08592

Schnurr, P. P., & Lunney, C. A. (2015). Differential effects of Prolonged Exposure on posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in female veterans. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 83(6), 1154-1160. https://doi.org/10.1037/ccp0000031

Wolf, E. J., Lunney, C. A., & Schnurr, P. P. (2016). The influence of the dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder on treatment efficacy in female veterans and active duty service members. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 84(1), 95-100. https://doi.org/10.1037/ccp0000036

Schnurr, P. P., & Lunney, C. A. (2016). Symptom benchmarks of improved quality of life in PTSD. Depression & Anxiety (1091-4269), 33(3), 247-255. https://doi.org/10.1002/da.22477

Schnurr, P. P., & Lunney, C. A. (2019). Residual symptoms following Prolonged Exposure and Present-Centered Therapy for PTSD in female veterans and soldiers. Depression & Anxiety (1091-4269), 36(2), 162-169. https://doi.org/10.1002/da.22871

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4).

Study 11047

Rothbaum, B. O., Cahill, S. P., Foa, E. B., Davidson, J. R. T., Compton, J., Connor, K. M., Astin, M. C., & Hahn, C.-G. (2006). Augmentation of sertraline with Prolonged Exposure in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 19(5), 625-638.

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 11048

Rothbaum, B. O., Kearns, M. C., Price, M., Malcoun, E., Davis, M., Ressler, K. J., Lang, D., & Houry, D. (2012). Early intervention may prevent the development of posttraumatic stress disorder: A randomized pilot civilian study with modified Prolonged Exposure. Biological Psychiatry, 72(11), 957-963. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2012.06.002

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 11050

Rutt, B. T., Oehlert, M. E., Krieshok, T. S., & Lichtenberg, J. W. (2018). Effectiveness of Cognitive Processing Therapy and Prolonged Exposure in the Department of Veterans Affairs. Psychological reports, 121(2), 282-302. https://doi.org/10.1177/0033294117727746

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4).

Study 11051

Schacht, R. L., Brooner, R. K., King, V. L., Kidorf, M. S., & Peirce, J. M. (2017). Incentivizing attendance to Prolonged Exposure for PTSD with opioid use disorder patients: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 85(7), 689-701. https://doi.org/10.1037/ccp0000208

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4).

Study 11052

Schnurr, P. P., Friedman, M. J., Lavori, P. W., & Hsieh, F. Y. (2001). Design of Department of Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study no. 420: Group treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder. Controlled Clinical Trials, 22(1), 74-88.

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 11053

Schnurr, P. P., Chard, K. M., Ruzek, J. I., Chow, B. K., Shih, M.-C., Resick, P. A., Foa, E. B., Marx, B. P., Huang, G. D., & Lu, Y. (2015). Design of VA Cooperative Study #591: CERV-PTSD, comparative effectiveness research in veterans with PTSD. Contemporary Clinical Trials, 41, 75-84. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cct.2014.11.017

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4).

Study 11055

Shemesh, E., Annunziato, R. A., Weatherley, B. D., Cotter, G., Feaganes, J. R., Santra, M., Yehuda, R., & Rubinstein, D. (2011). A randomized controlled trial of the safety and promise of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy using imaginal exposure in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder resulting from cardiovascular illness. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 72(2), 168-174. https://doi.org/10.4088/JCP.09m05116blu

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 11056

Rauch, S. A. M., King, A. P., Abelson, J., Tuerk, P. W., Smith, E., Rothbaum, B. O., Clifton, E., Defever, A., & Liberzon, I. (2015). Biological and symptom changes in posttraumatic stress disorder treatment: A randomized clinical trial. Depression & Anxiety (1091-4269), 32(3), 204-212. https://doi.org/10.1002/da.22331

Sripada, R. K., Rauch, S. A. M., Tuerk, P. W., Smith, E., Defever, A. M., Mayer, R. A., Messina, M., & Venners, M. (2013). Mild traumatic brain injury and treatment response in Prolonged Exposure for PTSD. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 26(3), 369-375. https://doi.org/10.1002/jts.21813

Rauch, S. A. M., King, A. P., Liberzon, I., & Sripada, R. K. (2017). Changes in salivary cortisol during psychotherapy for posttraumatic stress disorder: A pilot study in 30 veterans. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 78(5), 599-603. https://doi.org/10.4088/JCP.15m10596

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4).

Study 11057

Taylor, S., Thordarson, D. S., Maxfield, L., Fedoroff, I. C., Lovell, K., & Ogrodniczuk, J. (2003). Comparative efficacy, speed, and adverse effects of three PTSD treatments: Exposure Therapy, EMDR, and Relaxation Training. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71(2), 330-338.

Taylor, S. (2003). Outcome predictors for three PTSD treatments: Exposure Therapy, EMDR, and Relaxation Training. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 17(2), 149-161. https://doi.org/10.1891/jcop.17.2.149.57432

Stapleton, J. A., Taylor, S., & Asmundson, G. J. G. (2006). Effects of three PTSD treatments on anger and guilt: Exposure Therapy, Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing, and Relaxation Training. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 19(1), 19-28.

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 11060

Thorp, S. R., Glassman, L. H., Wells, S. Y., Walter, K. H., Gebhardt, H., Twamley, E., Golshan, S., Pittman, J., Penski, K., Allard, C., Morland, L. A., & Wetherell, J. (2019). A randomized controlled trial of Prolonged Exposure Therapy versus Relaxation Training for older veterans with military-related PTSD. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 64, 45-54. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.janxdis.2019.02.003

Walter, K. H., Glassman, L. H., Wells, S. Y., Thorp, S. R., & Morland, L. A. (2020). The impact of depression severity on treatment outcomes among older male combat veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Traumatic Stress. Https://doi.org/10.1002/jts.22503

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4).

Study 11061

Tuerk, P. W., Wangelin, B., Rauch, S. A. M., Dismuke, C. E., Yoder, M., Myrick, H., Eftekhari, A., & Acierno, R. (2013). Health service utilization before and after evidence-based treatment for PTSD. Psychological Services, 10(4), 401-409. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0030549

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4).

Study 11062

Valentin, J. (1999). Generic reference levels of existing annual dose for intervention in prolonged exposure situations. Annals of the ICRP, 29(1-2), 45-51.

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 11064

Wang, S. J., Bytyçi, A., Izeti, S., Kallaba, M., Rushiti, F., Montgomery, E., & Modvig, J. (2017). A novel bio-psycho-social approach for rehabilitation of traumatized victims of torture and war in the post-conflict context: A pilot randomized controlled trial in Kosovo. Conflict and Health, 10, 34. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13031-016-0100-y

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 11066

Wierwille, J. L., Pukay-Martin, N. D., Chard, K. M., & Klump, M. C. (2016). Effectiveness of PTSD telehealth treatment in a VA clinical sample. Psychological Services, 13(4), 373-379. https://doi.org/10.1037/ser0000106

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4).

Study 11067

Wittmann, L., Halpern, J., Adams, C. B. L., Orner, R. J., & Kudler, H. (2011). Prolonged exposure and psychodynamic treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 50(5), 521-522. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2011.03.005

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 11068

Wood, D. P., Webb-Murphy, J., McLay, R. N., Wiederhold, B. K., Spira, J. L., Johnston, S., Koffman, R. L., Wiederhold, M. D., & Pyne, J. (2011). Reality Graded Exposure Therapy with physiological monitoring for the treatment of combat related post traumatic stress disorder: a pilot study. Studies in Health Technology & Informatics, 164, 696-702.

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 11070

Zoellner, L. A., Telch, M., Foa, E. B., Farach, F. J., McLean, C. P., Gallop, R., Bluett, E. J., Cobb, A., & Gonzalez-Lima, F. (2017). Enhancing extinction learning in posttraumatic stress disorder with brief daily imaginal exposure and Methylene Blue: A randomized controlled trial. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 78(7), e782-e789. https://doi.org/10.4088/JCP.16m10936

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4).