Triple P – Positive Parenting Program – Standard (Level 4)

Mental Health Promising

Triple P – Positive Parenting Program – Standard (Level 4) (“Triple P – Standard”) is a parenting intervention for families with children who exhibit behavior or emotional difficulties. As a part of Triple P – Standard, parents engage in one-on-one sessions with a practitioner. These sessions include parent training that aims to promote children’s social competence and self-regulation and reduce behavior problems.


Triple P – Positive Parenting Program – Standard (Level 4) is rated as a promising practice because at least one study achieved a rating of moderate or high on study design and execution and demonstrated a favorable effect on a target outcome.


Date Research Evidence Last Reviewed: Aug 2020


Sources

The program or service description, target population, and program or service delivery and implementation information was informed by the following sources: the California Evidence-based Clearinghouse for Child Welfare, the Home Visiting Evidence of Effectiveness review, the program or service developer’s website, the program or service manual, and the studies reviewed.


This information does not necessarily represent the views of the program or service developers. For more information on how this program or service was reviewed, visit the Review Process page or download the Handbook.

Target Population

Triple P – Standard serves families with children (age birth to 12 years) who exhibit behavior problems.

Dosage

In Triple P – Standard, parents receive 10 weekly one-on-one sessions with a practitioner. Each session lasts about 1 hour.

Location/Delivery Setting
Recommended Locations/Delivery Settings

Triple P – Standard sessions typically take place in-person in a clinical setting. Practitioners may also visit the home to observe families or deliver services.  

Location/Delivery Settings Observed in the Research

  • Home
  • Mental Health Center, Treatment Center, Therapist Office
  • Community Center (e.g., religious or recreational facility)

Education, Certifications and Training

All Triple P – Standard practitioners must complete a 3-day training program. This training covers topics such as applying positive parenting strategies, identifying risk and protective factors in families, assessing child and family functioning, and making referrals. Practitioners must also participate in a 1-day pre-accreditation process where they practice specific competencies associated with delivery of the model and receive individualized feedback. Then, 6 to 8 weeks later, practitioners complete a half-day accreditation workshop in which they demonstrate proficiency in key competency areas. There are no specific educational or background prerequisites for Triple P – Standard practitioners; however, experience with and knowledge of child development is preferred.

Program or Service Documentation
Book/Manual/Available documentation used for review

Sanders, M. R., Markie-Dadds, C., & Turner, K. M. T. (2013). Practitioner’s manual for Standard Triple P (2nd ed.). Triple P International Pty Ltd.

Available languages

Triple P parent resources are available in English and 21 other languages. Practitioner resources are available in English, Spanish, Dutch, German, Japanese, French, Swedish, and other languages.

Other supporting materials

Training Overview

Accreditation Process

Contact Information for Developers

Website: https://www.triplep.net/glo-en/home/

Phone: 803-451-2278

Email: contact.us@triplep.net

Results of Search and Review Number of Studies Identified and Reviewed for Triple P – Positive Parenting Program – Standard (Level 4)
Identified in Search 15
Eligible for Review 2
Rated High 0
Rated Moderate 1
Rated Low 1
Reviewed Only for Risk of Harm 0
Outcome Effect Size
and Implied Percentile Effect
N of Studies (Findings) N of Participants Summary of Findings
Child well-being: Behavioral and emotional functioning 0.51
19
1 (3) 136 Favorable: 2
No Effect: 1
Unfavorable: 0
Adult well-being: Positive parenting practices 0.41
15
1 (3) 136 Favorable: 2
No Effect: 1
Unfavorable: 0
Adult well-being: Parent/caregiver mental or emotional health 0.26
10
1 (8) 136 Favorable: 1
No Effect: 7
Unfavorable: 0

Note: For the effect sizes and implied percentile effects reported in the table, a positive number favors the intervention group and a negative number favors the comparison group.

Outcome Effect Size
and Implied Percentile Effect
N of Studies (Findings) N of Participants Summary of Findings Months after treatment
when outcome measured
Child well-being: Behavioral and emotional functioning 0.51
19
1 (3) 136 Favorable: 2
No Effect: 1
Unfavorable: 0
-
Sanders, 2000
Revised Family Observation Schedule-III: Negative Child Behavior 0.22
8
- 136 - 1
Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory: Intensity Scale (Father Report) 0.68 *
25
- 100 - 1
Parent Daily Report: Mean Daily Problem Score (Father Report) 0.62 *
23
- 100 - 1
Adult well-being: Positive parenting practices 0.41
15
1 (3) 136 Favorable: 2
No Effect: 1
Unfavorable: 0
-
Sanders, 2000
Parenting Scale: Total Score (Mother Report) 1.01 *
34
- 136 - 1
Parenting Scale: Total Score (Father Report) 0.42 *
16
- 100 - 1
Revised Family Observation Schedule-III: Negative Mother Behavior -0.19
-7
- 136 - 1
Adult well-being: Parent/caregiver mental or emotional health 0.26
10
1 (8) 136 Favorable: 1
No Effect: 7
Unfavorable: 0
-
Sanders, 2000
Dyadic Adjustment Scale-7 (Mother Report) 0.04
1
- 136 - 1
Dyadic Adjustment Scale-7 (Father Report) 0.29
11
- 100 - 1
Parent Problem Checklist: Total Score (Mother Report) 0.28
10
- 136 - 1
Parent Problem Checklist: Total Score (Father Report) 0.31
11
- 100 - 1
Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-42: Total Score (Mother Report) 0.20
7
- 136 - 1
Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-42: Total Score (Father Report) -0.20
-7
- 100 - 1
Parenting Sense of Competence Scale (Mother Report) 0.83 *
29
- 136 - 1
Parenting Sense of Competence Scale (Father Report) 0.37
14
- 100 - 1

*p <.05

Note: For the effect sizes and implied percentile effects reported in the table, a positive number favors the intervention group and a negative number favors the comparison group. Effect sizes and implied percentile effects were calculated by the Prevention Services Clearinghouse as described in the Handbook of Standards and Procedures, Section 5.10.4 and may not align with effect sizes reported in individual publications.

Only publications with eligible contrasts that met design and execution standards are included in the individual study findings table.

Full citations for the studies shown in the table are available in the "Studies Reviewed" section.

Sometimes study results are reported in more than one document, or a single document reports results from multiple studies. Studies are identified below by their Prevention Services Clearinghouse study identification numbers.

Studies Rated Moderate

Study 10775

Sanders, M. R., Markie-Dadds, C., Tully, L. A., & Bor, W. (2000). The Triple P-Positive Parenting Program: A comparison of enhanced, standard, and self-directed behavioral family intervention for parents of children with early onset conduct problems. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68(4), 624-640. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.68.4.624

Bor, W., Sanders, M. R., & Markie-Dadds, C. (2002). The effects of the Triple P-Positive Parenting Program on preschool children with co-occurring disruptive behavior and attentional/hyperactive difficulties. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 30(6), 571-587. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1020807613155

Sanders, M. R., Bor, W., & Morawska, A. (2007). Maintenance of treatment gains: A comparison of enhanced, standard, and self-directed Triple P-Positive Parenting Program. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 35(6), 983-998. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-007-9148-x


Studies Rated Low

Study 10781

Westrupp, E. M., Northam, E., Lee, K. J., Scratch, S. E., & Cameron, F. (2015). Reducing and preventing internalizing and externalizing behavior problems in children with type 1 diabetes: A randomized controlled trial of the Triple P-Positive Parenting Program. Pediatric Diabetes, 16(7), 554-563. https://doi.org/10.1111/pedi.12205

This study received a low rating because it did not meet design confound standards.


Studies Not Eligible for Review

Study 10741

Baker, S., & Sanders, M. R. (2017). Predictors of program use and child and parent outcomes of a brief online parenting intervention. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 48(5), 807-817. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10578-016-0706-8

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 10744

Dahinten, V. S., Arim, R. G., Guèvremont, A., & Kohen, D. E. (2014). The case for using administrative data to examine a population-based parenting intervention. International Journal of Child Health and Human Development, 7(2), 115-124.

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 10745

David, O. A. (2014). The Rational Positive Parenting program for child externalizing behavior: Mechanisms of change analysis. Journal of Evidence-Based Psychotherapies, 14(1), 21-38.

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 10748

Doyle, O., Hegarty, M., & Owens, C. (2018). Population-based system of parenting support to reduce the prevalence of child social, emotional, and behavioural problems: Difference-in-differences study. Prevention Science, 19(6), 772-781. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11121-018-0907-4

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 10749

Duncombe, M. E., Havighurst, S. S., Kehoe, C. E., Holland, K. A., Frankling, E. J., & Stargatt, R. (2016). Comparing an emotion- and a behavior-focused parenting program as part of a multsystemic intervention for child conduct problems. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 45(3), 320-334. https://doi.org/10.1080/15374416.2014.963855

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 10758

Jalali, M., Pourahmadi, E., Tahmassian, K., & Shaeiri, M. (2008). The effectiveness of the Triple P-Positive Parenting Program on psychological well being of mothers of children with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). Journal of Family Research, 4(4), 353-368.

This study is ineligible for review because it is not available in English (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.3).

Study 10759

Jones, S., Calam, R., Sanders, M., Diggle, P. J., Dempsey, R., & Sadhnani, V. (2014). A pilot web based positive parenting intervention to help bipolar parents to improve perceived parenting skills and child outcomes. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 42(3), 283-296. https://doi.org/10.1017/S135246581300009X

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 10765

Lundin, M., & Karlsson, M. (2014). Estimation of causal effects in observational studies with interference between units. Statistical Methods and Applications, 23(3), 417-433. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10260-014-0257-8

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4).

Study 10772

Morawska, A., Mitchell, A. E., Burgess, S., & Fraser, J. (2016). Effects of Triple P parenting intervention on child health outcomes for childhood asthma and eczema: Randomised controlled trial. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 83, 35-44. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2016.06.001

Morawska, A., Mitchell, A., Burgess, S., & Fraser, J. (2017). Randomized controlled trial of Triple P for parents of children with asthma or eczema: Effects on parenting and child behavior. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 85(4), 283-296. https://doi.org/10.1037/ccp0000177

Morawska, A., Mitchell, A. E., Burgess, S., & Fraser, J. (2017). 'Effects of Triple P parenting intervention on child health outcomes for childhood asthma and eczema: Randomised controlled trial': Corrigendum. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 92, 107. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2016.12.017

Morawska, A., Mitchell, A. E., Burgess, S., & Fraser, J. (2017). Fathers' perceptions of change following parenting intervention: Randomized controlled trial of Triple P for parents of children with asthma or eczema. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 42(7), 792-803. https://doi.org/10.1093/jpepsy/jsw106

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 10774

Pickering, J. A., & Sanders, M. R. (2016). The protocol for a randomised controlled trial (RCT) of a brief intervention for parents of children experiencing sibling conflict. Clinical Psychologist, 20(2), 86-93. https://doi.org/10.1111/cp.12051

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 10777

Turner, K. M., Richards, M., & Sanders, M. R. (2007). Randomised clinical trial of a group parent education programme for Australian Indigenous families. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 43(6), 429-437. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1440-1754.2002.00077.x-i1

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 10778

Schilling, S., Lanier, P., Rose, R. A., Shanahan, M., & Zolotor, A. J. (2019). A quasi-experimental effectiveness study of Triple P on child maltreatment. Journal of Family Violence, 35(4), 373-383. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10896-019-00043-5

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 10785

Zamani, R., Gahari, S., & Pourrahhimi, M. (2017). Effect of teaching positive parenting program to mothers on reducing behavioral problems in children with oppositional defiant disorder: Paper presented at the International Educational Technology Conference and International Teacher Education Conference. Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 208-213.

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible publication source (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.2).