Methadone Maintenance Therapy

Substance Use Prevention or Treatment Promising

Methadone Maintenance Therapy (MMT) is a medication-assisted treatment that aims to reduce the use of heroin and other opioids for individuals who have an opioid use disorder. Methadone is itself an opioid medication. It is prescribed and administered at levels calibrated to avert the onset of painful withdrawal symptoms and can be tapered slowly to reduce or end opioid dependence. MMT must be administered by clinicians in federally-certified and licensed treatment programs and includes counseling and social support services. States individually determine appropriate staff-to-patient ratios for delivery of this treatment. Methadone dosage and the length of treatment vary according to the individuals’ needs. Most people receive methadone once per day for at least one year. Methadone is typically administered in a clinical setting. However, individuals who have progressed further into treatment may be allowed to take methadone at home between visits. To meet federal requirements, MMT programs must be certified through the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) Division of Pharmacologic Therapies (DPT). SAMHSA DPT also offers training courses, webinars, workshops, and reference publications to MMT clinicians.


MMT is rated as a promising practice because at least one study achieved a rating of moderate or high on study design and execution and demonstrated a favorable effect on a target outcome.


Sources

The program or service description, target population, and program or service delivery and implementation information was informed by the following sources: the program or service manual, the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) website, and the studies reviewed.


This information does not necessarily represent the views of the program or service developers. For more information on how this program or service was reviewed, visit the Review Process page or download the Handbook.

Target Population

This program is designed to treat individuals who have an opioid use disorder. Typically, individuals must be at least 18 years old to receive MMT. However, individuals under 18 may be eligible to receive MMT if they have already had two unsuccessful treatment attempts and they have parent/guardian consent.

Dosage

Due to differences in individual needs, the length of treatment can vary from person to person. However, most individuals receive methadone treatment once a day for at least one year. The program aims to reduce methadone dosage gradually until individuals stop participating in MMT. The frequency of counseling and social support services varies based on individual needs.

Location/Delivery Setting
Recommended Locations/Delivery Settings

Individuals receiving methadone must be monitored by trained clinicians in federally certified and licensed treatment programs. Individuals who have progressed further into treatment may be allowed to take methadone at home between visits. However, this option is only available if the clinician has determined that the individual is stable and can adhere to the prescribed dosage.

The location and delivery setting for counseling and social support services vary. These services may be delivered by the same entity that delivers methadone or by a different entity in a different setting.

Location/Delivery Settings Observed in the Research

  • Hospital/Medical Center

Education, Certifications and Training

MMT can be delivered by substance abuse counselors, nurses, or physicians. These clinicians must have the appropriate licenses, certifications, training and experience for their role. SAMHSA DPT offers training courses, webinars, workshops, and reference publications to MMT clinicians.

Program or Service Documentation
Book/Manual/Available documentation

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) has published a manual with guidelines that opioid treatment programs must follow, including implementation of medication-assisted treatments.

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) (2015). Federal Guidelines for Opioid Treatment Programs. Retrieved from https://store.samhsa.gov/system/files/pep15-fedguideotp.pdf

Available languages

The Federal Guidelines for opioid treatment programs are available in English. SAMHSA offers language services in Spanish, Chinese, Vietnamese, Korean, Tagalog, Russian, Arabic, Haitian Creole, French, Polish, Portuguese, Italian, German, Japanese, and Farsi.

Other supporting materials

Code of Federal Regulations

Opioid Treatment Program Certification

Center Certification Application Instructions

Results of Search and Review Number of Studies Identified and Reviewed for Methadone Maintenance Therapy
Identified in Search 47
Eligible for Review 20
Rated High 1
Rated Moderate 1
Rated Low 18
Reviewed Only for Risk of Harm 0
Outcome Effect Size
and Implied Percentile Effect
N of Studies (Findings) N of Participants Summary of Findings
Adult well-being: Parent/caregiver substance use 0.43
16
1 (23) 66 Favorable: 6
No Effect: 17
Unfavorable: 0
Adult well-being: Family functioning 0.11
4
1 (1) 486 Favorable: 0
No Effect: 1
Unfavorable: 0

Note: For the effect sizes and implied percentile effects reported in the table, a positive number favors the intervention group and a negative number favors the comparison group.

Outcome Effect Size
and Implied Percentile Effect
N of Studies (Findings) N of Participants Summary of Findings Months after treatment
when outcome measured
Adult well-being: Parent/caregiver substance use 0.43
16
1 (23) 66 Favorable: 6
No Effect: 17
Unfavorable: 0
-
Gruber, 2008
Days of Heroin Use (1 Month Post-Entry) 1.10 *
36
- 65 - 0
Days of Cocaine Use (1 Month Post-Entry) 0.11
4
- 65 - 0
Days of Alcohol Use (1 Month Post-Entry) -0.06
-2
- 65 - 0
Days of Heroin Use (2 Months Post-Entry) 1.37 *
41
- 62 - 0
Days of Cocaine Use (2 Months Post-Entry) 0.04
1
- 62 - 0
Days of Alcohol Use (2 Months Post-Entry) 0.03
1
- 62 - 0
Positive Urine Test for Opiates (1 Month Post-Entry) 0.46
17
- 66 - 0
Positive Urine Test for Opiates (2 Months Post-Entry) 1.15
37
- 63 - 0
Days of Heroin Use (3 Months Post-Entry) 1.21 *
38
- 58 - 0
Days of Cocaine Use (3 Months Post-Entry) 0.08
3
- 58 - 0
Days of Alcohol Use (3 Months Post-Entry) -0.24
-9
- 58 - 0
Positive Urine Test for Opiates (3 Months Post-Entry) 0.67
24
- 59 - 0
Days of Heroin Use (4 Months Post-Entry) 1.17 *
37
- 53 - 0
Days of Cocaine Use (4 Months Post-Entry) -0.05
-1
- 53 - 0
Days of Alcohol Use (4 Months Post-Entry) -0.26
-10
- 53 - 0
Positive Urine Test for Opiates (4 Months Post-Entry) 0.53
20
- 54 - 0
Days of Heroin Use (5 Months Post-Entry) 1.04 *
35
- 51 - 0
Days of Cocaine Use (5 Months Post-Entry) 0.26
10
- 51 - 0
Days of Alcohol Use (5 Months Post-Entry) -0.16
-6
- 51 - 0
Days of Heroin Use 1.34 *
40
- 47 - 0
Days of Cocaine Use 0.09
3
- 47 - 0
Days of Alcohol Use -0.11
-4
- 47 - 0
Positive Urine Test for Opiates 0.17
6
- 48 - 0
Adult well-being: Family functioning 0.11
4
1 (1) 486 Favorable: 0
No Effect: 1
Unfavorable: 0
-
Aiken, 1994
Maintenance of Domestic Activities 0.11
4
- 486 - 0

*p <.05

Note: For the effect sizes and implied percentile effects reported in the table, a positive number favors the intervention group and a negative number favors the comparison group. Effect sizes and implied percentile effects were calculated by the Prevention Services Clearinghouse as described in the Handbook of Standards and Procedures, Section 5.10.4 and may not align with effect sizes reported in individual publications.

Only publications with eligible contrasts that met design and execution standards are included in the individual study findings table.

Full citations for the studies shown in the table are available in the "Studies Reviewed" section.

Sometimes study results are reported in more than one document, or a single document reports results from multiple studies. Studies are identified below by their Prevention Services Clearinghouse study identification numbers.

Studies Rated High

Study 10358

Gruber, V. A., Delucchi, K. L., Kielstein, A., & Batki, S. L. (2008). A randomized trial of 6-month methadone maintenance with standard or minimal counseling versus 21-day methadone detoxification. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 94(1-3), 199-206. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2007.11.021


Studies Rated Moderate

Study 10340

Aiken, L. S., Stein, J. A., & Bentler, P. M. (1994). Structural equation analyses of clinical subpopulation differences and comparative treatment outcomes: Characterizing the daily lives of drug addicts. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 62(3), 488-499. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.62.3.488


Studies Rated Low

Study 10370

Meyer, T., Kapkov, D., Lipp, M. J., Bodenheimer Jr, H. C., Siegel, J. H., & Min, A. D. (2009). Bile duct dilatation in patients with chronic viral hepatitis on maintenance methadone therapy. Gastroenterology & Hepatology, 5(9), 641-644.

This study received a low rating because baseline equivalence of the intervention and comparison groups was necessary and not demonstrated.
Study 10351

Clark, C. B., Hendricks, P. S., Lane, P. S., Trent, L., & Cropsey, K. L. (2014). Methadone maintenance treatment may improve completion rates and delay opioid relapse for opioid dependent individuals under community corrections supervision. Addictive Behaviors, 39(12), 1736-1740. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2014.07.011

This study received a low rating because baseline equivalence of the intervention and comparison groups was necessary and not demonstrated.
Study 10369

Metzger, D. S., Woody, G. E., McLellan, A. T., O'brien, C. P., Druley, P., Navaline, H., ... & Abrutyn, E. (1993). Human immunodeficiency virus seroconversion among intravenous drug users in-and out-of-treatment: An 18-month prospective follow-up. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 6, 1049-1056.

Watkins, K. E., David Metzger, B. A., Woody, G., & McLellan, A. T. (1992). High-risk sexual behaviors of intravenous drug users in-and out-of-treatment: implications for the spread of HIV infection. The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 18(4), 389-398. https://doi.org/10.3109/00952999209051037

This study received a low rating because it did not meet design confound standards.
Study 10368

Meandzija, B., O'Connor, P. G., Fitzgerald, B., Rounsaville, B. J., & Kosten, T. R. (1994). HIV infection and cocaine use in methadone maintained and untreated intravenous drug users. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 36(2), 109-113. https://doi.org/10.1016/0376-8716(94)90092-2

This study received a low rating because it did not meet design confound standards.
Study 10386

Stein, M. D., & Anderson, B. (2003). Injection frequency mediates health service use among persons with a history of drug injection. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 70(2), 159-168. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0376-8716(02)00344-7

This study received a low rating because it did not meet design confound standards.
Study 10371

Moore, B. C., Easton, C. J., & McMahon, T. J. (2011). Drug abuse and intimate partner violence: A comparative study of opioid-dependent fathers. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 81(2), 218-227. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1939-0025.2011.01091.x

This study received a low rating because it did not meet design confound standards.
Study 10362

Jones, H. E., O'Grady, K. E., Malfi, D., & Tuten, M. (2008). Methadone maintenance vs. methadone taper during pregnancy: Maternal and neonatal outcomes. The American Journal on Addictions, 17(5), 372-386. https://doi.org/10.1080/10550490802266276

This study received a low rating because it did not meet design confound standards.
Study 10348

Campbell, B. K., Le, T., Tajima, B., & Guydish, J. (2017). Quitting smoking during substance use disorders treatment: Patient and treatment-related variables. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 73, 40-46. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsat.2016.11.002

This study received a low rating because baseline equivalence of the intervention and comparison groups was necessary and not demonstrated.
Study 10361

Hser, Y. I., Anglin, M. D., & Fletcher, B. (1998). Comparative treatment effectiveness: Effects of program modality and client drug dependence history on drug use reduction. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 15(6), 513-523. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0740-5472(97)00308-5

This study received a low rating because it did not meet design confound standards.
Study 10390

Zhang, Z., Friedmann, P. D., & Gerstein, D. R. (2003). Does retention matter? Treatment duration and improvement in drug use. Addiction, 98(5), 673-684. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1360-0443.2003.00354.x

This study received a low rating because baseline equivalence of the intervention and comparison groups was necessary and not demonstrated.
Study 10383

Shah, N. G., Galai, N., Celentano, D. D., Vlahov, D., & Strathdee, S. A. (2006). Longitudinal predictors of injection cessation and subsequent relapse among a cohort of injection drug users in Baltimore, MD, 1988–2000. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 83(2), 147-156. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2005.11.007

This study received a low rating because it did not meet design confound standards.
Study 10360

Harlow, S. D., Cohen, M., Ohmit, S. E., Schuman, P., Cu-Uvin, S., Lin, X., ... & Young, M. A. (2003). Substance use and psychotherapeutic medications: a likely contributor to menstrual disorders in women who are seropositive for human immunodeficiency virus. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 188(4), 881-886. https://doi.org/10.1067/mob.2003.209

This study received a low rating because baseline equivalence of the intervention and comparison groups was necessary and not demonstrated.
Study 10378

Prosser, J. M., Eisenberg, D., Davey, E. E., Steinfeld, M., Cohen, L. J., London, E. D., & Galynker, I. I. (2008). Character pathology and neuropsychological test performance in remitted opiate dependence. Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy, 3(1), 23. https://doi.org/10.1186/1747-597X-3-23

This study received a low rating because it did not meet design confound standards.
Study 10373

Nolan, L. J., & Scagnelli, L. M. (2007). Preference for sweet foods and higher body mass index in patients being treated in long-term methadone maintenance. Substance Use & Misuse, 42(10), 1555-1566. https://doi.org/10.1080/10826080701517727

This study received a low rating because it did not meet design confound standards.
Study 10364

Lollis, C. M., Strothers, H. S., Chitwood, D. D., & McGhee, M. (2000). Sex, drugs, and HIV: does methadone maintenance reduce drug use and risky sexual behavior?. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 23(6), 545-557. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1005555519831

This study received a low rating because baseline equivalence of the intervention and comparison groups was necessary and not demonstrated.
Study 10365

Majer, J. M., Harris, J. C., & Jason, L. A. (2017). An examination of women ex-offenders with methadone histories. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 61(6), 711-723. https://doi.org/10.1177/0306624X15600834

This study received a low rating because baseline equivalence of the intervention and comparison groups was necessary and not demonstrated.
Study 10344

Sorensen, J. L., Masson, C. L., Delucchi, K., Sporer, K., Barnett, P. G., Mitsuishi, F., ... & Hall, S. M. (2005). Randomized trial of drug abuse treatment-linkage strategies. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73(6), 1026-1035. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.73.6.1026

Barnett, P. G., Masson, C. L., Sorensen, J. L., Wong, W., & Hall, S. (2006). Linking opioid‐dependent hospital patients to drug treatment: health care use and costs 6 months after randomization. Addiction, 101(12), 1797-1804. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.136

This study received a low rating because it did not meet design confound standards.
Study 10355

Evans, E., Li, L., Min, J., Huang, D., Urada, D., Liu, L., ... & Nosyk, B. (2015). Mortality among individuals accessing pharmacological treatment for opioid dependence in California, 2006–10. Addiction, 110(6), 996-1005. https://doi.org/10.1111/add.12863

Nosyk, B., Li, L., Evans, E., Urada, D., Huang, D., Wood, E., ... & Hser, Y. I. (2014). Utilization and outcomes of detoxification and maintenance treatment for opioid dependence in publicly-funded facilities in California, USA: 1991–2012. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 143, 149-157.

This study received a low rating because baseline equivalence of the intervention and comparison groups was necessary and not demonstrated.


Studies Not Eligible for Review

Study 10341

Anglin, M. D., & Powers, K. I. (1991). Methadone treatment and legal supervision: Individual and joint effects on the behavior of narcotics addicts. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 27(4), 515-531. https://doi.org/10.1177/0021886391274009

Anglin, M. D., McGlothlin, W. H., Speckart, G. R., & Ryan, T. M. (1982). Shutting off methadone: The closure of the San Deigo Methadone Maintenance Program. Final Report, NIDA grant DA02577.

McGlothlin, W. H., & Anglin, M. D. (1981). Long-term Follow-up of Clients of High-and Low-Dose Methadone Programs. Archives of General Psychiatry, 38(9), 1055-1063.

This study is ineligible for review because the publication date is prior to 1990 (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.1).                   

Study 10342

Baker, A., Kochan, N., Dixon, J., Wodak, A., & Heather, N. (1994). Drug use and HIV risktaking behaviour among injecting drug users not currently in treatment in Sydney, Australia. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 34, 155-160.

Baker, A., Kochan, N., Dixon, J., Wodak, A., & Heather, N. (1995). HIV risk‐taking behaviour among injecting drug users currently, previously and never enrolled in methadone treatment. Addiction, 90(4), 545-554. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1360-0443.1995.9045458.x

Darke, S., Baker, A., Dixon, J., Wodak, A., & Heather, N. (1992). Drug use and HIV risk-taking behaviour among clients in methadone maintenance treatment. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 29, 263-268.

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).                   

Study 10343

Baker, A., Heather, N., Wodak, A., & Lewin, T. (2001). Heroin use and risk-taking behaviour among women injecting drug users. Drug and Alcohol Review, 20(2), 205-211.

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).                   

Study 10345

Bravo, M. J., Llorens, N., Barrio, G., Brugal, M. T., Santos, S., Sordo, L., ... & Itinere Project Group. (2010). Methadone maintenance treatment: a protective factor for cocaine injection in a street-recruited cohort of heroin users. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 112(1-2), 62-68. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2010.05.014

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).                   

Study 10346

Britton, B. M. (1994). The privatization of methadone maintenance: Changes in risk behavior associated with cost related detoxification. Addiction Research, 2(2), 171-181. https://doi.org/10.3109/16066359409109141

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4).                   

Study 10347

Calsyn, D. A., Crits‐Christoph, P., Hatch‐Maillette, M. A., Doyle, S. R., Song, Y. S., Coyer, S., & Pelta, S. (2010). Reducing sex under the influence of drugs or alcohol for patients in substance abuse treatment. Addiction, 105(1), 100-108. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1360-0443.2009.02812.x

Newville, H., Sorensen, J. L., Hatch-Maillette, M., & Calsyn, D. A. (2018). Temporal Relationship of Sex Risk Behaviors and Substance Use Severity Among Men in Substance Use Treatment. The Journal of Sex Research, 55(8), 1056-1064. https://doi.org/10.1080/00224499.2017.1321101

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).      

Study 10349

Caplehorn, J. R., & Saunders, J. B. (1993). A comparison of residential heroin detoxification patients and methadone maintenance patients. Drug and Alcohol Review, 12(3), 259-263.

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 10350

Caplehom, J. R. (1994). A comparison of abstinence-oriented and indefinite methadone maintenance treatment. International Journal of the Addictions, 29(11), 1361-1375. https://doi.org/10.3109/10826089409048714

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 10352

Cumberbatch, Z., Copersino, M., Stitzer, M., & Jones, H. (2004). Comparative drug use and psychosocial profiles of opioid dependents applying for medication versus medication‐free treatment. The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 30(2), 237-249. https://doi.org/10.1081/ADA-120037376

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4).                   

Study 10353

Deren, S., Kang, S. Y., Colón, H. M., & Robles, R. R. (2007). Predictors of injection drug use cessation among Puerto Rican drug injectors in New York and Puerto Rico. The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 33(2), 291-299. https://doi.org/10.1080/00952990601175037

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 10354

Dolsen, M. R., & Harvey, A. G. (2017). Life‐time history of insomnia and hypersomnia symptoms as correlates of alcohol, cocaine and heroin use and relapse among adults seeking substance use treatment in the United States from 1991 to 1994. Addiction, 112(6), 1104-1111. https://doi.org/10.1111/add.13772

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4).

Study 10356

Golden, J., O'Dwyer, A. M., & Conroy, R. M. (2005). Depression and anxiety in patients with hepatitis C: Prevalence, detection rates and risk factors. General Hospital Psychiatry, 27(6), 431-438. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2005.06.006

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 10357

Gossop, M., Marsden, J., & Stewart, D. (2006). Remission of psychiatric symptoms among drug misusers after drug dependence treatment. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 194(11), 826-832. doi: 10.1097/01.nmd.0000244483.17443.0e

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6). 

Study 10359

Haber, P. S., Elsayed, M., Espinoza, D., Lintzeris, N., Veillard, A. S., & Hallinan, R. (2017). Constipation and other common symptoms reported by women and men in methadone and buprenorphine maintenance treatment. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 181, 132-139. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2017.09.024

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 10363

Kyei-Aboagye, K., Vragovic, O., & Chong, D. (2000). Birth outcome in incarcerated, high-risk pregnant women. Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey, 55(11), 682-684.

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 10367

McCabe, B. E., Santisteban, D. A., Mena, M. P., Duchene, D. M., McLean, C., & Monroe, M. (2013). Engagement, retention, and abstinence for three types of opioid users in Florida. Substance Use & Misuse, 48(8), 623-634. https://doi.org/10.3109/10826084.2013.800112

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4).

Study 10374

Oliveira, J., Lopes, P., Gamito, P., Trigo, H., Sargento, P., Rosa, B., & Coutinho, R. (2016). Neuropsychological status of heroin users undergoing methadone maintenance in harm reduction program and therapeutic community. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 14(2), 141-148. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-015-9576-8

This study is ineligible for review because it does not report program or service impacts on an eligible target outcome (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.5).

Study 10375

O’Toole, J., Hambly, R., Cox, A. M., O’Shea, B., & Darker, C. (2014). Methadone-maintained patients in primary care have higher rates of chronic disease and multimorbidity, and use health services more intensively than matched controls. The European Journal of General Practice, 20(4), 275-280. https://doi.org/10.3109/13814788.2014.905912

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 10376

Peirce J. M., Petry, N. M., Stitzer, M. L., Blaine, J., Kellogg, S., … & Li, R. (2006). Effects of lower-cost incentives on stimulant abstinence in methadone maintenance treatment: A National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 63, 201–208.

Peirce, J. M., Petry, N. M., Roll, J. M., Kolodner, K., Krasnansky, J., Stabile, P. Q., ... & Stitzer, M. L. (2009). Correlates of stimulant treatment outcome across treatment modalities. The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 35(1), 48-53. https://doi.org/10.1080/00952990802455444

Petry, N. M., Peirce, J. M., Stitzer, M. L., Blaine, J., Roll, J. M., Cohen, A., ... & Kirby, K. C. (2005). Effect of prize-based incentives on outcomes in stimulant abusers in outpatient psychosocial treatment programs: a national drug abuse treatment clinical trials network study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62(10), 1148-1156.

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4).

Study 10377

Persico, A. M., Di Giannantonio, M., & Tempesta, E. (1991). A prospective assessment of opiate addiction treatment protocols for inpatients with HIV-related syndromes. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 27(1), 79-86. https://doi.org/10.1016/0376-8716(91)90090-L

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6). 

Study 10379

Richardson, L., Wood, E., Montaner, J., & Kerr, T. (2012). Addiction treatment-related employment barriers: The impact of methadone maintenance. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 43(3), 276-284. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsat.2011.12.008

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 10380

Sambamoorthi, U., Warner, L. A., Crystal, S., & Walkup, J. (2000). Drug abuse, methadone treatment, and health services use among injection drug users with AIDS. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 60(1), 77-89. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0376-8716(00)80010-1

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4).

Study 10381

San, L., Torrens, M., Tato, J., Castillo, C., de la Torre, R., & Arranz, B. (1998). Monitoring patterns of substance use in drug-dependent patients. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 15(5), 425-430. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0740-5472(97)00289-4

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 10382

Masson, C. L., Barnett, P. G., Sees, K. L., Delucchi, K. L., Rosen, A., Wong, W., & Hall, S. M. (2004). Cost and cost‐effectiveness of standard methadone maintenance treatment compared to enriched 180‐day methadone detoxification. Addiction, 99(6), 718-726. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1360-0443.2004.00728.x

Sees, K. L., Delucchi, K. L., Masson, C., Rosen, A., Clark, H. W., Robillard, H., ... & Hall, S. M. (2000). Methadone maintenance vs 180-day psychosocially enriched detoxification for treatment of opioid dependence: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA, 283(10), 1303-1310. doi:10.1001/jama.283.10.1303

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4).

Study 10384

Somer, E., Altus, L., & Ginzburg, K. (2010). Dissociative psychopathology among opioid use disorder patients: Exploring the “chemical dissociation” hypothesis. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 51(4), 419-425. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.comppsych.2009.09.007

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 10387

Turner, B. J., Laine, C., Yang, C. P., & Hauck, W. W. (2003). Effects of long-term, medically supervised, drug-free treatment and methadone maintenance treatment on drug users' emergency department use and hospitalization. Clinical infectious diseases, 37(Supplement 5), S457-S463. https://doi.org/10.1086/377558

This study is ineligible for review because it does not report program or service impacts on an eligible target outcome (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.5).

Study 10388

Van der Poel, A., Barendregt, C., & Van de Mheen, D. (2006). Drug users' participation in addiction care: Different groups do different things. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 38(2), 123-132. https://doi.org/10.1080/02791072.2006.10399836

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).