Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

Mental Health Promising

Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) is a program for children and adolescents who have symptoms associated with trauma exposure. TF-CBT is intended to treat children/adolescents who have post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, dysfunctional feelings or thoughts, or behavioral problems. The intervention also supports caregivers in overcoming their personal distress, implementing effective parenting skills, and fostering positive interactions with their child/adolescent. After ensuring safety of the child/adolescent, TF-CBT is structured into three phases that include: 1) skill building for the child/adolescent’s self-regulation and the caregiver’s behavior management and supportive care abilities, 2) addressing the traumatic experience, and 3) joint therapy sessions between caregiver and child/adolescent. TF-CBT is usually administered in clinical office settings over 12 to 16 weekly sessions for about one hour, though this can range. During these sessions the therapist may meet with the caregiver and child/adolescent separately or jointly. This program is administered by licensed mental health professionals who have received TF-CBT training and certification.


TF-CBT is rated as a promising practice because at least one study achieved a rating of moderate or high on study design and execution and demonstrated a favorable effect on a target outcome.


Date Research Evidence Last Reviewed: Jun 2019


Sources

The program or service description, target population, and program or service delivery and implementation information was informed by the following sources: The California Evidence-based Clearinghouse for Child Welfare, the Children’s Bureau, the National Child Traumatic Stress Network, the program or service developer’s website, the program or service manual, and the studies reviewed.


This information does not necessarily represent the views of the program or service developers. For more information on how this program or service was reviewed, visit the Review Process page or download the Handbook.

Target Population

TF-CBT serves children and adolescents who have experienced trauma. This program targets children/adolescents who have PTSD symptoms, dysfunctional feelings or thoughts, or behavioral problems. Caregivers are included in treatment as long as they did not perpetrate the trauma and child safety is maintained.

Dosage

TF-CBT is usually administered in 12 to 16 sessions. However, it can be delivered in as few as 8 sessions. Or, for particularly complex trauma, it can last for as many as 25 sessions. TF-CBT sessions are scheduled about weekly until the end of treatment. Session length can range from 45 to 90 minutes, but typically last for one hour. During these sessions the therapist may meet with the caregiver and child/adolescent separately (i.e., 30 minutes with the caregiver and 30 minutes with the child/adolescent). Or, the therapist may meet with the caregiver and child/adolescent jointly. When feasible, the final set of sessions are often joint as a part of the treatment plan, with the caregiver or other supportive adult and child/adolescent participating together.

Location/Delivery Setting
Recommended Locations/Delivery Settings

TF-CBT is typically offered in a clinical office setting, though it can also be used in residential treatment facilities, schools, and homes.

Location/Delivery Settings Observed in the Research

  • Mental Health Center, Treatment Center, Therapist Office
  • University Clinical Lab

Education, Certifications and Training

TF-CBT providers are licensed masters or doctoral level mental health professionals. In order to receive certification for TF-CBT, individuals must attend two consecutive days of training, complete three treatment cases, score at least 80% on a certification exam, and participate in follow-up supervisory consultation with trainers for 6-12 months.

Program or Service Documentation
Book/Manual/Available documentation used for review

Treating Trauma and Traumatic Grief in Children and Adolescents provides information about the TF-CBT treatment approach, with guidance broken down into different implementation scenarios. It also includes handouts and training information.

Cohen, J. A., Mannarino, A.P., & Deblinger, E. (2006). Treating Trauma and Traumatic Grief in Children and Adolescents. New York, NY: Guilford Press.

Available languages

Materials for TF-CBT have been translated into Spanish, German, Dutch, Japanese, Chinese, and Polish.

Other supporting materials

Certification Criteria

Contact Information for Developers

Websites: https://tfcbt.org/ and https://tfcbt2.musc.edu/

Results of Search and Review Number of Studies Identified and Reviewed for Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
Identified in Search 35
Eligible for Review 11
Rated High 3
Rated Moderate 3
Rated Low 5
Reviewed Only for Risk of Harm 0
Outcome Effect Size
and Implied Percentile Effect
N of Studies (Findings) N of Participants Summary of Findings
Child well-being: Behavioral and emotional functioning 0.39
15
6 (70) 579 Favorable: 31
No Effect: 39
Unfavorable: 0
Child well-being: Social functioning 0.11
4
3 (5) 267 Favorable: 3
No Effect: 2
Unfavorable: 0
Adult well-being: Positive parenting practices 0.85
30
1 (2) 179 Favorable: 2
No Effect: 0
Unfavorable: 0
Adult well-being: Parent/caregiver mental or emotional health 0.50
19
1 (2) 179 Favorable: 2
No Effect: 0
Unfavorable: 0

Note: For the effect sizes and implied percentile effects reported in the table, a positive number favors the intervention group and a negative number favors the comparison group.

Outcome Effect Size
and Implied Percentile Effect
N of Studies (Findings) N of Participants Summary of Findings Months after treatment
when outcome measured
Child well-being: Behavioral and emotional functioning 0.39 *
15
6 (70) 579 Favorable: 31
No Effect: 39
Unfavorable: 0
-
Cohen, 1996
Child Behavior Checklist: Total Problem Behavior 0.81 *
29
- 67 - 0
Child Behavior Checklist: Internalizing Problems 0.97 *
33
- 67 - 0
Child Behavior Checklist: Externalizing Problems 0.57 *
21
- 67 - 0
Child Sexual Behavior Inventory 0.57 *
21
- 67 - 0
Weekly Behavior Record: Behavior Types 0.42
16
- 67 - 0
Weekly Behavior Record: Total Behavior Score 0.65 *
24
- 67 - 0
Cohen, 1998
Child Sexual Behavior Inventory 0.27
10
- 49 - 0
Child Behavior Checklist: Total Problem Behavior 0.18
7
- 49 - 0
Child Behavior Checklist: Internalizing Problems 0.36
13
- 49 - 0
Child Behavior Checklist: Externalizing Problems 0.09
3
- 49 - 0
State-Trait Anxiety Inventory: State Anxiety 0.19
7
- 49 - 0
Cohen, 2004
K-SADS Reexperiencing 0.46 *
17
- 180 - 0
K-SADS Avoidance 0.69 *
25
- 180 - 0
K-SADS Hypervigiliance 0.37 *
14
- 180 - 0
Child Behavior Checklist: Internalizing Problems 0.22
8
- 179 - 0
Child Behavior Checklist: Externalizing Problems 0.17
6
- 179 - 0
Child Behavior Checklist: Total Problems 0.23
9
- 179 - 0
Child Depression Inventory 0.23
9
- 183 - 0
State Trait Anxiety Inventory: Trait Anxiety 0.23
9
- 183 - 0
State Trait Anxiety Inventory: State Anxiety 0.18
7
- 183 - 0
Children's Attribution and Perceptions Scale: Feeling Different/Stigmatization -0.01
0
- 183 - 0
Children's Attribution and Perceptions Scale: Self-Blame for Negative Events 0.16
6
- 183 - 0
Children's Attribution and Perceptions Scale: Perceived Credibility 0.32 *
12
- 183 - 0
Children's Attribution and Perceptions Scale: Interpersonal Trust 0.31 *
12
- 183 - 0
Child Sexual Behavior Inventory 0.55 *
20
- 179 - 0
Shame Questionnaire 0.41 *
15
- 181 - 0
Goldbeck, 2016
Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale for Children and Adolescents: Total 0.68 *
25
- 133 - 0
Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale for Children and Adolescents: Reexperiencing 0.62 *
23
- 133 - 0
Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale for Children and Adolescents: Avoidance 0.61 *
23
- 133 - 0
Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale for Children and Adolescents: Hyperarousal 0.52 *
19
- 133 - 0
UCLA-PTSD Reaction Index (Child Self-Report) 0.16
6
- 133 - 0
UCLA-PTSD Reaction Index (Child Self-Report) 0.67 *
24
- 133 - 0
UCLA-PTSD Reaction Index (Caregiver Report) -0.01
0
- 133 - 0
UCLA-PTSD Reaction Index (Caregiver Report) 0.54 *
20
- 133 - 0
Child Posttraumatic Cognitions Inventory 0.19
7
- 133 - 0
Child Posttraumatic Cognitions Inventory 0.61 *
22
- 133 - 0
Children's Global Assessment Scale 0.63 *
23
- 133 - 0
Screen for Child Anxiety-Related Emotional Disorders (Child Self-Report) 0.01
0
- 133 - 0
Screen for Child Anxiety-Related Emotional Disorders (Child Self-Report) 0.37 *
14
- 133 - 0
Child Behavior Checklist: Total Problem Behavior 0.33
13
- 133 - 0
Child Behavior Checklist: Total Problem Behavior 0.63 *
23
- 133 - 0
Child Behavior Checklist: Externalizing Problems 0.20
8
- 133 - 0
Child Behavior Checklist: Externalizing Problems 0.40 *
15
- 133 - 0
Jensen, 2014
Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale for Children and Adolescents 0.36
13
- 116 - 0
Jensen, 2017
Child PTSD Symptom Scale (mid-intervention) 0.18
7
- 123 - 0
Child PTSD Symptom Scale (end of intervention) 0.56 *
21
- 122 - 0
Child PTSD Symptom Scale 0.20
7
- 99 - 8
Child PTSD Symptom Scale 0.36
14
- 75 - 18
Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (mid-intervention) 0.12
4
- 122 - 0
Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (end of intervention) 0.44 *
16
- 119 - 0
Mood and Feelings Questionnaire 0.04
1
- 96 - 8
Mood and Feelings Questionnaire 0.18
7
- 75 - 18
Screen for Child Anxiety Related Disorders (mid-intervention) 0.25
9
- 122 - 0
Screen for Child Anxiety Related Disorders (end of intervention) 0.32
12
- 115 - 0
Screen for Child Anxiety Related Disorders 0.26
10
- 98 - 8
Screen for Child Anxiety Related Disorders 0.25
9
- 75 - 18
Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: Total Problems 0.36
14
- 115 - 0
Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: Total Problems 0.16
6
- 96 - 8
Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: Total Problems 0.35
13
- 75 - 18
Child PTSD Symptom Scale: Functional Impairment (mid-intervention) 0.22
8
- 122 - 0
Child PTSD Symptom Scale: Functional Impairment (end of intervention) 0.46 *
17
- 121 - 0
Child PTSD Symptom Scale: Functional Impairment -0.07
-2
- 99 - 8
Child PTSD Symptom Scale: Functional Impairment 0.07
2
- 75 - 18
Jensen, 2018
Post-Traumatic Cognitions Inventory (Child Version) -0.03
-1
- 122 - 0
Post-Traumatic Cognitions Inventory (Child Version) 0.50 *
19
- 114 - 0
Smith, 2007
Child PTSD Symptom Scale 2.37 *
49
- 24 - 0
Children's Revised Impact of Event Scale 2.58 *
49
- 24 - 0
Clinician Administered PTSD Scale 1.87 *
46
- 24 - 0
Depression Self Rating Scale 1.29 *
40
- 24 - 0
Clinician Administered PTSD Scale: PTSD Diagnosis 1.13
37
- 24 - 0
Child well-being: Social functioning 0.11
4
3 (5) 267 Favorable: 3
No Effect: 2
Unfavorable: 0
-
Cohen, 1996
Child Behavioral Checklist: Social Competence -0.02
0
- 67 - 0
Cohen, 2004
Child Behavior Checklist: Social Competence 0.01
0
- 176 - 0
Smith, 2007
Clinician Administered PTSD Scale: Social Functioning (Child rated) 1.40 *
41
- 24 - 0
Clinician Administered PTSD Scale: Social Functioning (Clinician rated) 1.69 *
45
- 24 - 0
Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule: Social Functioning 1.60 *
44
- 23 - 0
Adult well-being: Positive parenting practices 0.85 *
30
1 (2) 179 Favorable: 2
No Effect: 0
Unfavorable: 0
-
Cohen, 2004
Parent Practices Questionnaire (Revised) 0.39 *
15
- 168 - 0
Parental Support Questionnaire 1.31 *
40
- 179 - 0
Adult well-being: Parent/caregiver mental or emotional health 0.50 *
19
1 (2) 179 Favorable: 2
No Effect: 0
Unfavorable: 0
-
Cohen, 2004
Beck Depression Inventory-II 0.33 *
12
- 166 - 0
Parent Emotional Reaction Questionnaire 0.68 *
25
- 179 - 0

*p <.05

Note: For the effect sizes and implied percentile effects reported in the table, a positive number favors the intervention group and a negative number favors the comparison group. Effect sizes and implied percentile effects were calculated by the Prevention Services Clearinghouse as described in the Handbook of Standards and Procedures, Section 5.10.4 and may not align with effect sizes reported in individual publications.

Only publications with eligible contrasts that met design and execution standards are included in the individual study findings table.

Full citations for the studies shown in the table are available in the "Studies Reviewed" section.

Sometimes study results are reported in more than one document, or a single document reports results from multiple studies. Studies are identified below by their Prevention Services Clearinghouse study identification numbers.

Studies Rated High

Study 10068

Smith, P., Yule, W., Perrin, S., Tranah, T., Dalgleish, T., & Clark, D. M. (2007). Cognitive-behavioral therapy for PTSD in children and adolescents: A preliminary randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 46(8), 1051-1061. doi:10.1097/CHI.0b013e318067e288

Study 10047

Jensen, T. K., Holt, T., Ormhaug, S. M., Egeland, K., Granly, L., Hoaas, L. C., . . . Wentzel-Larsen, T. (2014). A randomized effectiveness study comparing Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy with therapy as usual for youth. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 43(3), 356-369. doi:10.1080/15374416.2013.822307

Jensen, T. K., Holt, T., & Ormhaug, S. M. (2017). A follow-up study from a multisite, randomized controlled trial for traumatized children receiving TF-CBT. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 45(8), 1587-1597. doi:10.1007/s10802-017-0270-0

Jensen, T. K., Holt, T., Ormhaug, S. M., Fjermestad, K. W., & Wentzel-Larsen, T. (2018). Change in post-traumatic cognitions mediates treatment effects for traumatized youth-a randomized controlled trial. Journal Of Counseling Psychology, 65(2), 166-177. doi:10.1037/cou0000258

Ormhaug, S. M., Jensen, T. K., Wentzel-Larsen, T., & Shirk, S. R. (2014). The therapeutic alliance in treatment of traumatized youths: Relation to outcome in a randomized clinical trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 82(1), 52-64. doi:10.1037/a0033884

Study 10042

Cohen, J. A., Deblinger, E., Mannarino, A. P., & Steer, R. A. (2004). A multisite, randomized controlled trial for children with sexual abuserelated ptsd symptoms. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 43(4), 393-402. doi:10.1097/01.chi.0000111364.94169.f9

Deblinger, E., Mannarino, A. P., Cohen, J. A., & Steer, R. A. (2006). A follow-up study of a multisite, randomized, controlled trial for children with sexual abuse-related PTSD symptoms. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 45(12), 1474-1484. doi:10.1097/01.chi.0000240839.56114.bb


Studies Rated Moderate

Study 10051

Cohen, J.A., & Mannarino, A. P. (1998). Interventions for sexually abused children: Initial treatment findings. Child Maltreatment, 3(1), 17-26.

Cohen, J. A., Mannarino, A. P., & Knudsen, K. (2005). Treating sexually abused children: 1 year follow-up of a randomized controlled trial. Child Abuse & Neglect, 29(2), 135-145. doi:10.1016/j.chiabu.2004.12.005

Study 10039

Cohen, J. A., & Mannarino, A. P. (1996). A treatment outcome study for sexually abused preschool children: Initial findings. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 35(1), 42-50.

Cohen, J. A., & Mannarino, A. P. (1997). A treatment study for sexually abused preschool children: Outcome during a one-year follow-up. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36(9), 1228-1235.

Study 10046

Goldbeck, L., Muche, R., Sachser, C., Tutus, D., & Rosner, R. (2016). Effectiveness of Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for children and adolescents: A randomized controlled trial in eight German mental health clinics. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 85(3), 159-170. doi:10.1159/000442824

Pfeiffer, E., Sachser, C., de Haan, A., Tutus, D., & Goldbeck, L. (2017). Dysfunctional posttraumatic cognitions as a mediator of symptom reduction in Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy with children and adolescents: Results of a randomized controlled trial. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 97, 178–182. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2017.08.001

Sachser, C., Keller, F., & Goldbeck, L. (2017). Complex PTSD as proposed for ICD-11: Validation of a new disorder in children and adolescents and their response to Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 58(2), 160–168. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.12640

Tutus, D., Goldbeck, L., Pfeiffer, E., Sachser, C., & Plener, P. L. (2018). Parental dysfunctional posttraumatic cognitions in trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy for children and adolescents. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy. https://doi.org/10.1037/tra0000419

Tutus, D., Keller, F., Sachser, C., Pfeiffer, E., & Goldbeck, L. (2017). Change in parental depressive symptoms in Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy: Results from a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, 27(2), 200–205. https://doi.org/10.1089/cap.2016.0136

Tutus, D., Pfeiffer, E., Rosner, R., Sachser, C., & Goldbeck, L. (2017). Sustainability of treatment effects of Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for children and adolescents: Findings from 6- and 12-month follow-ups. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 86(6), 379–381. https://doi.org/10.1159/000481198


Studies Rated Low

Study 10048

King, N. J., Tonge, B. J., Mullen, P., Myerson, N., Heyne, D., Rollings, S., . . . Ollendic, T. H. (2000). Treating sexually abused children with posttraumatic stress symptoms: A randomized clinical trial. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 39(11), 1347-1355.

This study received a low rating because the standards for addressing missing data were not met.
Study 10043

Cohen, J. A., Mannarino, A. P., & Iyengar, S. (2011). Community treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder for children exposed to intimate partner violence: A randomized control trial. Archive of Pediatric Adolescent Medicine, 165(1), 16-21.

This study received a low rating because the standards for addressing missing data were not met.
Study 10228

Farnia, V., Naami, A., Zargar, Y., Davoodi, I., Salemi, S., Tatari, F., . . . Alikhani, M. (2018). Comparison of Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and theory of mind: Improvement of posttraumatic growth and emotion regulation strategies. Journal Of Education And Health Promotion, 7, 58. doi:10.4103/jehp.jehp_140_17

This study received a low rating because it did not meet design confound standards.
Study 10044

Deblinger, E., Lippmann, J., & Steer, R. (1996). Sexually abused children suffering posttraumatic stress symptoms: Initial treatment outcome findings. Child Maltreatment, 1(4), 310-321. doi:10.1177/1077559596001004003

Deblinger, E., Steer, R. A., & Lippmann, J. (1999). Two-year follow-up study of cognitive behavioral therapy for sexually abused children suffering post-traumatic stress symptoms. Child Abuse & Neglect, 23(12), 1371-1378.

This study received a low rating because it did not meet design confound standards.
Study 10040

Murray, L. K., Skavenski, S., Kane, J. C., Mayeya, J., Dorsey, S., Cohen, J. A., . . . Bolton, P. A. (2015). Effectiveness of Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy among trauma-affected children in Lusaka, Zambia: A randomized clinical trial. JAMA Pediatrics, 169(8), 761-769. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2015.0580

Kane, J. C., Murray, L. K., Cohen, J., Dorsey, S., Skavenski van Wyk, S., Galloway Henderson, J., . . . Bolton, P. (2016). Moderators of treatment response to Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy among youth in Zambia. Journal Of Child Psychology And Psychiatry, And Allied Disciplines, 57(10), 1194-1202. doi:10.1111/jcpp.12623

This study received a low rating because it did not meet the statistical model standards.


Studies Not Eligible for Review

Study 10045

Deblinger, E., Mannarino, A. P., Cohen, J. A., Runyon, M. K., & Steer, R. A. (2011). Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for children: Impact of the trauma narrative and treatment length. Depression and Anxiety, 28(1), 67-75. doi:10.1002/da.20744

Mannarino, A. P., Cohen, J. A., Deblinger, E., & Runyon, M. K. (2012). Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for children: Sustained impact of treatment 6 and 12 months later. Child Maltreatment, 17(3), 231-241.

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4).

Study 10049

McMullen, J., O'Callaghan, P., Shannon, C., Black, A., & Eakin, J. (2013). Group Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy with former child soldiers and other war-affected boys in the dr congo: A randomised controlled trial. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 54(11), 1231-1241. doi:10.1111/jcpp.12094

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 10052

O'Callaghan, P., McMullen, J., Shannon, C., Rafferty, H., & Black, A. (2013). A randomized controlled trial of Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for sexually exploited, war-affected Congolese girls. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 52(4), 359-369. doi:10.1016/j.jaac.2013.01.013

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 10060

Jaycox, L. H., Cohen, J. A., Mannarino, A. P., Walker, D. W., Langley, A. K., Gegenheimer, K. L., . . . Schonlau, M. (2010). Children's mental health care following Hurricane Katrina: A field trial of trauma-focused psychotherapies. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 23(2), 223-231. doi:10.1002/jts.20518

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4).

Study 10061

Deblinger, E., Stauffer, L. B., & Steer, R. A. (2001). Comparative efficacies of supportive and cognitive behavioral group therapies for young children who have been sexually abused and their nonoffending mothers. Child Maltreatment, 6(4), 332-343.

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 10062

Diehle, J., Opmeer, B. C., Boer, F., Mannarino, A. P., & Lindauer, R. J. (2015). Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy or Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing: What works in children with posttraumatic stress symptoms? A randomized controlled trial. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 24(2), 227-236. doi:10.1007/s00787-014-0572-5

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4).

Study 10063

Kataoka, S. H., Stein, B. D., Jaycox, L. H., Wong, M., Escudero, P., Tu, W., . . . Fink, A. (2003). A school-based mental health program for traumatized latino immigrant children. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 42(3), 311-318. doi:10.1097/01.CHI.0000037038.04952.8E

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 10064

Nixon, R. D., Sterk, J., & Pearce, A. (2012). A randomized trial of cognitive behaviour therapy and cognitive therapy for children with posttraumatic stress disorder following single-incident trauma. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 40(3), 327-337. doi:10.1007/s10802-011-9566-7

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4).

Study 10066

Runyon, M. K., Deblinger, E., & Steer, R. A. (2010). Group cognitive behavioral treatment for parents and children at-risk for physical abuse: An initial study. Child & Family Behavior Therapy, 32(3), 196-218. doi:10.1080/07317107.2010.500515

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 10067

Schottelkorb, A. A., Doumas, D. M., & Garcia, R. (2012). Treatment for childhood refugee trauma: A randomized, controlled trial. International Journal of Play Therapy, 21(2), 57-73. doi:10.1037/a0027430

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4).

Study 10222

Böttche, M., Kuwert, P., Pietrzak, R. H., & Knaevelsrud, C. (2016). Predictors of outcome of an internet-based cognitive-behavioural therapy for post-traumatic stress disorder in older adults. Psychology And Psychotherapy, 89(1), 82-96. doi:10.1111/papt.12069

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 10223

Cohen, J. A., Mannarino, A. P., & Knudsen, K. (2004). Treating childhood traumatic grief: A pilot study. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 43(10), 1225-1233. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.chi.0000135620.15522.38

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 10224

Dalgleish, T., Goodall, B., Chadwick, I., Werner-Seidler, A., McKinnon, A., Morant, N., . . . Meiser-Stedman, R. (2015). Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behaviour Therapy versus treatment as usual for post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in young children aged 3 to 8 years: Study protocol for a randomised controlled trial. Trials, 16(1), 116-116. doi:10.1186/s13063-015-0632-2

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4).

Study 10225

Deisenhofer, A.-K., Delgadillo, J., Rubel, J. A., Böhnke, J. R., Zimmermann, D., Schwartz, B., & Lutz, W. (2018). Individual treatment selection for patients with posttraumatic stress disorder. Depression and Anxiety, 35(6), 541-550. doi:10.1002/da.22755

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4).

Study 10226

Dorsey, S., Pullmann, M. D., Deblinger, E., Berliner, L., Kerns, S. E., Thompson, K., . . . Garland, A. F. (2013). Improving practice in community-based settings: A randomized trial of supervision - study protocol. Implementation Science, 8(1), 89-89. doi:10.1186/1748-5908-8-89

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4).

Study 10227

Farnia, V., Salemi, S., Tatari, F., Abdoli, N., Jouybari, T. A., Alikhani, M., . . . Zakiei, A. (2018). Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: A clinical trial to increase self-efficacy in abused the primary school children. Journal Of Education And Health Promotion, 7, 33. doi:10.4103/jehp.jehp_80_17 [Note: First author's surname is misspelled in the journal article as Farina; correct spelling is Farnia]

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 10229

Foa, E. B., Zoellner, L. A., & Feeny, N. C. (2006). An evaluation of three brief programs for facilitating recovery after assault. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 19(1), 29-43. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jts.20096

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 10230

Ghafoori, B., Wolf, M. G., Nylund-Gibson, K., & Felix, E. D. (2018). A naturalistic study exploring mental health outcomes following trauma-focused treatment among diverse survivors of crime and violence. Journal Of Affective Disorders, 245, 617-625. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2018.11.060

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 10231

Hoagwood, K. E., Vogel, J. M., Levitt, J. M., D'Amico, P. J., Paisner, W. I., & Kaplan, S. J. (2007). Implementing an evidence-based trauma treatment in a state system after September 11: The CATS project. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 46(6), 773-779. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/chi.0b013e3180413def

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4).

Study 10232

Kenardy, J., Cobham, V., Nixon, R. D. V., McDermott, B., & March, S. (2010). Protocol for a randomised controlled trial of risk screening and early intervention comparing child- and family-focused cognitive-behavioural therapy for ptsd in children following accidental injury. BMC Psychiatry, 10, 92. doi:10.1186/1471-244X-10-92

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4).

Study 10233

Knutsen, M., & Jensen, T. K. (2019). Changes in the trauma narratives of youth receiving Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in relation to posttraumatic stress symptoms. Psychotherapy Research, 29(1), 99-111. doi:10.1080/10503307.2017.1303208

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4).

Study 10234

Nollett, C., Lewis, C., Kitchiner, N., Roberts, N., Addison, K., Brookes-Howell, L., . . . Bisson, J. (2018). Pragmatic randomised controlled trial of a trauma-focused guided self-help programme versus individual Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for post-traumatic stress disorder (RAPID): Trial protocol. BMC Psychiatry, 18(1), 77. doi:10.1186/s12888-018-1665-3

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4).

Study 10235

O'Driscoll, C., Mason, O., Brady, F., Smith, B., & Steel, C. (2016). Process analysis of Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for individuals with schizophrenia. Psychology And Psychotherapy, 89(2), 117-132. doi:10.1111/papt.12072

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4).