Families Facing the Future

Substance Use Prevention or Treatment Supported

Families Facing the Future (FFF) (formerly known as Focus on Families) is an intensive program for parents in methadone treatment who have children or young adolescents. FFF teaches parenting and relapse prevention skills to parents and aims to protect their at-risk children from adverse outcomes, including drug use. Case managers work collaboratively with families to identify positive activities, connect them with available services, and identify ways to reinforce use of new skills. Typically, families attend a five-hour group retreat at the beginning of the FFF program. Then, parent(s) attend 90-minute group sessions twice a week for 16 weeks in an outpatient clinic. Children participate in 12 of these sessions. Families also receive approximately two hours of in-home case management per week. This program is delivered by case managers who have a master’s, background in chemical dependency and parenting, and attended a three-day training.


FFF is rated as a supported practice because at least one study carried out in a usual care or practice setting achieved a rating of moderate or high on design and execution and demonstrated a sustained favorable effect of at least 6 months beyond the end of treatment on at least one target outcome.


Sources

The program or service description, target population, and program or service delivery and implementation information was informed by the following sources: The California Evidence-based Clearinghouse for Child Welfare, Crime Solutions, the program or service developer’s website, and the studies reviewed.


This information does not necessarily represent the views of the program or service developers. For more information on how this program or service was reviewed, visit the Review Process page or download the Handbook.

Target Population

FFF aims to serve families with one or more parents receiving methadone treatment who have children or young adolescents.

Dosage

To begin the program, families attend a five-hour group retreat that focuses on family goal setting. Then, parent(s) attend 90-minute group sessions twice a week for 16 weeks for a total of 32 sessions. Children attend 12 of these sessions with their parent(s). Families also receive approximately two hours of in-home case management per week.

Location/Delivery Setting
Recommended Locations/Delivery Settings

FFF includes group sessions that take place in an outpatient clinic. FFF also includes case management that occurs in the family’s homes.

Location/Delivery Settings Observed in the Research

  • Home
  • Mental Health Center, Treatment Center, Therapist Office

Education, Certifications and Training

Case managers must have a master’s degree as well as training in chemical dependency and parenting. Case managers must attend three days of on-site training.

Program or Service Documentation
Book/Manual/Available documentation

The FFF curriculum can be found on the developer’s website. The curriculum includes descriptions of the different session-types and a list of the topics that are covered in each of the sessions.

Haggerty, K. P., Mills, E., & Catalano, R. F. (1993). Families Facing the Future: Curriculum.

Available languages

Materials are available in English.

Other supporting materials

Curriculum

Contact Information for Developers

Website: http://www.sdrg.org/fffsummary.asp

Phone: (206) 685-1997

Email: sdrg@uw.edu

Results of Search and Review Number of Studies Identified and Reviewed for Families Facing the Future
Identified in Search 1
Eligible for Review 1
Rated High 1
Rated Moderate 0
Rated Low 0
Reviewed Only for Risk of Harm 0
Outcome Effect Size
and Implied Percentile Effect
N of Studies (Findings) N of Participants Summary of Findings
Child well-being: Physical development and health 0.02
0
1 (1) 151 Favorable: 0
No Effect: 1
Unfavorable: 0
Child well-being: Substance use 0.04
1
1 (10) 151 Favorable: 0
No Effect: 10
Unfavorable: 0
Adult well-being: Positive parenting practices 0.33
12
1 (1) 112 Favorable: 0
No Effect: 1
Unfavorable: 0
Adult well-being: Parent/caregiver substance use 0.13
5
1 (18) 135 Favorable: 3
No Effect: 15
Unfavorable: 0
Adult well-being: Family functioning 0.09
3
1 (10) 135 Favorable: 0
No Effect: 10
Unfavorable: 0

Note: For the effect sizes and implied percentile effects reported in the table, a positive number favors the intervention group and a negative number favors the comparison group.

Outcome Effect Size
and Implied Percentile Effect
N of Studies (Findings) N of Participants Summary of Findings Months after treatment
when outcome measured
Child well-being: Physical development and health 0.02
0
1 (1) 151 Favorable: 0
No Effect: 1
Unfavorable: 0
-
Skinner, 2014
Participant had a Sexually Transmitted Infection in Past Year 0.02
0
- 151 - 138
Child well-being: Substance use 0.04
1
1 (10) 151 Favorable: 0
No Effect: 10
Unfavorable: 0
-
Gainey, 2007
CIDI: Cocaine/Amphetamine Substance Use Disorder: Abuse 0.25
10
- 151 - 138
Haggerty, 2008
CIDI: Any Substance Use Disorder: Abuse -0.06
-2
- 151 - 138
CIDI: Any Substance Use Disorder: Dependence -0.01
0
- 151 - 138
CIDI: Alcohol Substance Use Disorder: Abuse -0.03
-1
- 151 - 138
CIDI: Alcohol Substance Use Disorder: Dependence 0.09
3
- 151 - 138
CIDI: Marijuana Substance Use Disorder: Abuse 0.18
7
- 151 - 138
CIDI: Marijuana Substance Use Disorder: Dependence 0.08
3
- 151 - 138
CIDI: Opiates Substance Use Disorder: Abuse -0.01
0
- 151 - 138
CIDI: Opiates Substance Use Disorder: Dependence 0.11
4
- 151 - 138
CIDI: Cocaine/Amphetamine Substance Use Disorder: Dependence -0.17
-6
- 151 - 138
Adult well-being: Positive parenting practices 0.33
12
1 (1) 112 Favorable: 0
No Effect: 1
Unfavorable: 0
-
Gainey, 2007
Parenting Skills Knowledge Scale 0.33
12
- 112 - 0
Adult well-being: Parent/caregiver substance use 0.13
5
1 (18) 135 Favorable: 3
No Effect: 15
Unfavorable: 0
-
Catalano, 1997
Any Marijuana Use Since Baseline 0.24
9
- 135 - 0
Any Cocaine Use Since Baseline -0.09
-3
- 135 - 0
Any Opiate Use Since Baseline -0.12
-4
- 135 - 0
Frequency of Marijuana Use in Past Month -0.08
-3
- 135 - 0
Frequency of Cocaine Use in Past Month -0.06
-2
- 135 - 0
Frequency of Opiate Use in Past Month 0.37 *
14
- 135 - 0
Catalano, 1999
Frequency of Marijuana Use in Past Month -0.21
-8
- 135 - 2
Frequency of Heroin Use in Past Month -0.10
-3
- 135 - 2
Frequency of Cocaine Use in Past Month 0.01
0
- 135 - 2
Any Marijuana Use in Past Month -0.16
-6
- 135 - 2
Any Cocaine Use in Past Month 0.09
3
- 135 - 2
Any Heroin Use in Past Month 0.10
3
- 135 - 2
Frequency of Marijuana Use in Past Month 0.16
6
- 132 - 8
Frequency of Heroin Use in Past Month 0.47 *
18
- 132 - 8
Frequency of Cocaine Use in Past Month 0.34
13
- 132 - 8
Any Marijuana Use in Past Month 0.40
15
- 132 - 8
Any Cocaine Use in Past Month 0.64 *
23
- 132 - 8
Any Heroin Use in Past Month 0.34
13
- 132 - 8
Adult well-being: Family functioning 0.09
3
1 (10) 135 Favorable: 0
No Effect: 10
Unfavorable: 0
-
Catalano, 1997
Family Meetings Frequency: Family Fun 0.34
13
- 135 - 0
Family Meetings Frequency: Discuss Child Responsibility 0.29
11
- 135 - 0
Moos Family Cohesion Scale: Family Bonding -0.04
-1
- 135 - 0
Moos Family Cohesion Scale: Family Conflict 0.03
1
- 135 - 0
Catalano, 1999
Family Meetings Frequency: Total Number of Meetings 0.32
12
- 135 - 2
Moos Family Cohesion Scale: Family Bonding -0.10
-4
- 135 - 2
Moos Family Cohesion Scale: Family Conflict -0.15
-6
- 135 - 2
Family Meetings Frequency: Total Number of Meetings 0.29
11
- 132 - 8
Moos Family Cohesion Scale: Family Bonding -0.12
-4
- 132 - 8
Moos Family Cohesion Scale: Family Conflict 0.07
2
- 132 - 8

*p <.05

Note: For the effect sizes and implied percentile effects reported in the table, a positive number favors the intervention group and a negative number favors the comparison group. Effect sizes and implied percentile effects were calculated by the Prevention Services Clearinghouse as described in the Handbook of Standards and Procedures, Section 5.10.4 and may not align with effect sizes reported in individual publications.

Only publications with eligible contrasts that met design and execution standards are included in the individual study findings table.

Full citations for the studies shown in the table are available in the "Studies Reviewed" section.

Sometimes study results are reported in more than one document, or a single document reports results from multiple studies. Studies are identified below by their Prevention Services Clearinghouse study identification numbers.

Studies Rated High

Study 10001

Catalano, R. F., Gainey, R. R., Fleming, C. B., Haggerty, K. P., & Johnson, N. O. (1999). An experimental intervention with families of substance abusers: One-year follow-up of the Focus on Families project. Addiction, 94(2), 241-254.

Catalano, R. F., Haggerty, K. P., Gainey, R. R., & Hoppe, M. J. (1997). Reducing parental risk factors for children's substance misuse: Preliminary outcomes with opiate-addicted parents. Substance Use & Misuse, 32(6), 699-721. doi:10.3109/10826089709039371

Gainey, R. R., Haggerty, K. P., Fleming, C. B., & Catalano, R. F. (2007). Teaching parenting skills in a methadone treatment setting. Social Work Research, 31(3), 185-190. doi:10.1093/swr/31.3.185

Haggerty, K. P., Skinner, M., Fleming, C. B., Gainey, R. R., & Catalano, R. F. (2008). Long-term effects of the Focus on Families project on substance use disorders among children of parents in methadone treatment. Addiction, 103(12), 2008-2016. doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2008.02360.x

Skinner, M. L., Fleming, C. B., Haggerty, K. P., & Catalano, R. F. (2014). Sex risk behavior among adolescent and young adult children of opiate addicts: Outcomes from the Focus on Families prevention trial and an examination of childhood and concurrent predictors of sex risk behavior. Prevention Science, 15(Suppl 1), S70-S77. doi:10.1007/s11121-012-0327-9

Skinner, M. L., Haggerty, K. P., Fleming, C. B., & Catalano, R. F. (2009). Predicting functional resilience among young-adult children of opiate-dependent parents. Journal of Adolescent Health, 44(3), 283-290. doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2008.07.020