Multisystemic Therapy

Mental Health Substance Use Prevention or Treatment Well Supported

Multisystemic Therapy (MST) is an intensive treatment for troubled youth delivered in multiple settings. This program aims to promote pro-social behavior and reduce criminal activity, mental health symptomology, out-of-home placements, and illicit substance use in 12- to 17-year-old youth. The MST program addresses the core causes of delinquent and antisocial conduct by identifying key drivers of the behaviors through an ecological assessment of the youth, his or her family, and school and community. The intervention strategies are personalized to address the identified drivers. The program is delivered for an average of three to five months, and services are available 24/7, which enables timely crisis management and allows families to choose which times will work best for them. Master’s level therapists from licensed MST providers take on only a small caseload at any given time so that they can be available to meet their clients’ needs.


MST is rated as a well-supported practice because at least two studies with non-overlapping samples carried out in usual care or practice settings achieved a rating of moderate or high on design and execution and demonstrated favorable effects in a target outcome domain. At least one of the studies demonstrated a sustained favorable effect of at least 12 months beyond the end of treatment on at least one target outcome.


Sources

The program or service description, target population, and program and service delivery and implementation information was informed by the following sources: The California Evidence-based Clearinghouse for Child Welfare, Blueprints for Healthy Youth Development, the program or service developer’s website, the program or service manual, and the studies reviewed.


This information does not necessarily represent the views of the program or service developers. For more information on how this program or service was reviewed, visit the Review Process page or download the Handbook.

Target Population

This program provides services to youth between the ages of 12 and 17 and their families. Target populations include youth who are at risk for or are engaging in delinquent activity or substance misuse, experience mental health issues, and are at-risk for out-of-home placement.

Dosage

Treatment using MST typically involves multiple weekly visits between the therapist and family, over an average timespan of 3 to 5 months. The intensity of services can vary based on clinical needs. The therapist and family work together to determine how often and when services should be provided throughout the course of treatment.

Location/Delivery Setting
Recommended Locations/Delivery Settings

Therapists can deliver the program in multiple settings, including home, school, and community. Therapists may also work directly with these settings as part of the treatment plan.

Location/Delivery Settings Observed in the Research

  • Home
  • Community Center (e.g., religious or recreational facility)
  • School

Education, Certifications and Training

MST is delivered by therapists who work for licensed MST teams and organizations. MST therapists, supervisors, and other staff complete an initial five day training. This training is provided by Ph.D. and Master's level mental-health specialists. Therapists that deliver MST also participate in ongoing trainings. These include quarterly clinically-focused booster sessions that aim to refresh MST skills and weekly consultations provided by MST experts. MST teams use a structured fidelity assessment approach to ensure clinical service delivery is consistent with the MST model.  

For more information, please visit the MST Training webpage.

Program or Service Documentation
Book/Manual/Available documentation

Multisystemic Therapy for Antisocial Behavior in Children and Adolescents, Second Edition is intended for clinical psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, counselors, researchers, and students. It describes the principles of MST and provides guidelines for implementing the program.

Henggeler, S. W., Schoenwald, S. K., Borduin, C. M., Rowland, M. D., & Cunningham, P. B. (2009). Multisystemic Therapy for Antisocial Behavior in Children and Adolescents (2nd ed.). New York: The Guilford Press.

Available languages

Materials are available in languages other than English, including Norwegian, several other European languages, and Spanish.

Other supporting materials

Training Materials

Contact Information for Developers

Website: http://www.mstservices.com/

Phone: (843) 856-8226

Email: info@mstservices.com

Results of Search and Review Number of Studies Identified and Reviewed for Multisystemic Therapy
Identified in Search 30
Eligible for Review 19
Rated High 5
Rated Moderate 2
Rated Low 3
Reviewed Only for Risk of Harm 9
Outcome Effect Size
and Implied Percentile Effect
N of Studies (Findings) N of Participants Summary of Findings
Child permanency 0.12
4
2 (4) 1395 Favorable: 2
No Effect: 2
Unfavorable: 0
Child well-being: Behavioral and emotional functioning 0.22 *
8
6 (89) 1455 Favorable: 21
No Effect: 67
Unfavorable: 1
Child well-being: Social functioning 0.02
0
3 (12) 946 Favorable: 0
No Effect: 12
Unfavorable: 0
Child well-being: Cognitive functions and abilities 0.13
5
1 (3) 486 Favorable: 0
No Effect: 3
Unfavorable: 0
Child well-being: Substance use -0.04
-1
2 (7) 703 Favorable: 1
No Effect: 5
Unfavorable: 1
Child well-being: Delinquent behavior 0.13 *
5
7 (48) 2200 Favorable: 11
No Effect: 33
Unfavorable: 4
Child well-being: Educational Achievement and Attainment -0.13
-5
1 (1) 153 Favorable: 0
No Effect: 1
Unfavorable: 0
Adult well-being: Positive parenting practices 0.12
4
3 (49) 969 Favorable: 12
No Effect: 37
Unfavorable: 0
Adult well-being: Parent/caregiver mental or emotional health 0.29 *
11
4 (7) 979 Favorable: 4
No Effect: 3
Unfavorable: 0
Adult well-being: Family functioning 0.12
4
5 (25) 1065 Favorable: 5
No Effect: 20
Unfavorable: 0

*p <.05

Note: For the effect sizes and implied percentile effects reported in the table, a positive number favors the intervention group and a negative number favors the comparison group. Effect sizes for some outcomes were not able to be calculated by the Prevention Services Clearinghouse.

Outcome Effect Size
and Implied Percentile Effect
N of Studies (Findings) N of Participants Summary of Findings Months after treatment
when outcome measured
Child permanency 0.12
4
2 (4) 1395 Favorable: 2
No Effect: 2
Unfavorable: 0
-
Fonagy, 2018
Any Out-of-home Placement -0.14
-5
- 675 - 14
Time to First Offense (Survival Analysis) Null
not calculated
- 679 - 14
Vidal, 2017
Out-of-home Placement Rate (Survival Analysis) Favorable *
not calculated
- 716 - 0
Any Out-of-home Placement 0.44 *
17
- 716 - 0
Child well-being: Behavioral and emotional functioning 0.22 *
8
6 (89) 1455 Favorable: 21
No Effect: 67
Unfavorable: 1
-
Asscher, 2013
Child Behavior Checklist: Externalizing Problems 0.21
8
- 256 - 0
Disruptive Behavior Disorder Rating Scale: Conduct Disorder 0.33 *
12
- 256 - 0
Disruptive Behavior Disorder Rating Scale: Oppositional Defiant Disorder 0.33 *
12
- 256 - 0
Youth Self Report: Externalizing Problems 0.21
8
- 256 - 0
Self-Perception Profile for Children: Self-Esteem 0.07
2
- 256 - 0
Children's Automatic Thought Questionnaire: Personal Failure -0.35 *
-13
- 256 - 0
Children's Automatic Thought Questionnaire: Hostility 0.25
9
- 256 - 0
Asscher, 2014
Child Behavior Checklist: Externalizing Problems 0.54 *
20
- 256 - 6
Disruptive Behavior Disorder Rating Scale: Conduct Disorder 0.57 *
21
- 256 - 6
Disruptive Behavior Disorder Rating Scale: Oppositional Defiant Disorder 0.73 *
26
- 256 - 6
Youth Self Report: Externalizing Problems 0.36 *
14
- 256 - 6
Borduin, 1995
SCL-90-R Global Severity Index (Adolescent) 0.32
12
- 126 - 0
Dekovic, 2012
Externalizing Problems: Composite Score (Self-Report and Observed) 0.34 *
13
- 256 - 0
Fonagy, 2018
Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: Conduct Problems (Child Report) 0.12
4
- 554 - 2
Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: Conduct Problems (Parent Report) 0.25 *
9
- 558 - 2
Inventory of Callous and Unemotional Traits (Child Report) 0.10
3
- 560 - 2
Inventory of Callous and Unemotional Traits (Parent Report) 0.39 *
15
- 560 - 2
Level of Expressed Emotion (Child Report) 0.14
5
- 560 - 2
Antisocial Beliefs and Attitudes Scale 0.07
2
- 560 - 2
Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: Total Problems (Child Report) 0.06
2
- 554 - 2
Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: Impact Score (Child Report) 0.01
0
- 554 - 2
Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: Emotional Problems (Child Report) 0.11
4
- 554 - 2
Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: Hyperactivity or Inattention (Child Report) 0.04
1
- 554 - 2
Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: Prosocial Behavior (Child Report) 0.02
0
- 554 - 2
Moods and Feelings Questionnaire - Short Form (Child Report) 0.17
6
- 560 - 2
Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: Total Problems (Parent Report) 0.29 *
11
- 558 - 2
Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: Impact Score (Parent Report) 0.21 *
8
- 558 - 2
Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: Emotional Problems (Parent Report) 0.23 *
9
- 558 - 2
Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: Hyperactivity or Inattention (Parent Report) 0.17
6
- 558 - 2
Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: Prosocial Behavior (Parent Report) 0.23 *
9
- 558 - 2
Conners CBRS: ADHD Rating Scale (Parent Report) 0.35 *
13
- 560 - 2
Any School Exclusions in Past 6 Months 0.00
0
- 684 - 2
Development and Well-Being Assessment: Any Disorder 0.17
6
- 487 - 8
Development and Well-Being Assessment: Conduct Disorder 0.06
2
- 487 - 8
Development and Well-Being Assessment: ADHD 0.21
8
- 487 - 8
Development and Well-Being Assessment: Major Depression -0.12
-4
- 487 - 8
Development and Well-Being Assessment: Anxiety Disorder 0.11
4
- 487 - 8
Development and Well-Being Assessment: Conduct Disorder With Anxiety 0.13
5
- 487 - 8
Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: Conduct Problems (Child Report) 0.10
3
- 489 - 8
Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: Conduct Problems (Parent Report) 0.09
3
- 483 - 8
Inventory of Callous and Unemotional Traits (Child Report) 0.06
2
- 486 - 8
Inventory of Callous and Unemotional Traits (Parent Report) 0.04
1
- 486 - 8
Level of Expressed Emotion (Child Report) 0.04
1
- 486 - 8
Antisocial Beliefs and Attitudes Scale 0.03
1
- 486 - 8
Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: Total Problems (Child Report) 0.18
7
- 489 - 8
Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: Impact Score (Child Report) 0.14
5
- 489 - 8
Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: Emotional Problems (Child Report) 0.18
7
- 489 - 8
Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: Hyperactivity or Inattention (Child Report) 0.04
1
- 489 - 8
Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: Prosocial Behavior (Child Report) 0.02
0
- 489 - 8
Moods and Feelings Questionnaire - Short Form (Child Report) 0.19 *
7
- 486 - 8
Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: Total Problems (Parent Report) 0.17
6
- 483 - 8
Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: Impact Score (Parent Report) 0.10
4
- 483 - 8
Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: Emotional Problems (Parent Report) 0.21 *
8
- 483 - 8
Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: Hyperactivity or Inattention (Parent Report) 0.15
5
- 483 - 8
Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: Prosocial Behavior (Parent Report) -0.13
-5
- 483 - 8
Conners CBRS: ADHD Rating Scale (Parent Report) 0.10
3
- 486 - 8
Any School Exclusions in Past 6 Months 0.04
1
- 684 - 8
Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: Conduct Problems (Child Report) 0.04
1
- 414 - 14
Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: Conduct Problems (Parent Report) 0.06
2
- 441 - 14
Inventory of Callous and Unemotional Traits (Child Report) 0.20 *
7
- 551 - 14
Inventory of Callous and Unemotional Traits (Parent Report) 0.06
2
- 551 - 14
Level of Expressed Emotion (Child Report) 0.05
2
- 551 - 14
Antisocial Beliefs and Attitudes Scale -0.11
-4
- 451 - 14
Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: Total Problems (Child Report) 0.09
3
- 414 - 14
Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: Emotional Problems (Child Report) 0.10
3
- 414 - 14
Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: Hyperactivity or Inattention (Child Report) 0.06
2
- 414 - 14
Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: Prosocial Behavior (Child Report) -0.03
-1
- 414 - 14
Moods and Feelings Questionnaire - Short Form (Child Report) 0.05
1
- 451 - 14
Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: Total Problems (Parent Report) 0.06
2
- 441 - 14
Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: Impact Score (Parent Report) 0.06
2
- 441 - 14
Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: Emotional Problems (Parent Report) 0.15
6
- 441 - 14
Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: Hyperactivity or Inattention (Parent Report) 0.00
0
- 441 - 14
Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: Prosocial Behavior (Parent Report) -0.13
-5
- 441 - 14
Conners CBRS: ADHD Rating Scale (Parent Report) 0.06
2
- 451 - 14
Conners CBRS: ADHD Rating Scale (Teacher Report) Null
not calculated
- 177 - 14
Any School Exclusions in Past 6 Months 0.21
8
- 684 - 14
Henggeler, 1997
Brief Symptom Inventory: Global Severity Index (Youth) 0.50 *
19
- 140 - 0
Revised Behavior Problems Checklist 0.09
3
- 140 - 0
Manders, 2013
Antisocial Process Screening Device: Narcissism 0.12
4
- 256 - 0
Antisocial Process Screening Device: Impulsiveness 0.27 *
10
- 256 - 0
Inventory of Callous and Unemotional Traits: Callous/Unemotional Traits 0.23
9
- 256 - 0
Ogden, 2004
Composite Internalizing Behavior Score 0.49 *
18
- 96 - 0
Composite Externalizing Problems 0.32
12
- 96 - 0
Ogden, 2006
Child Behavior Checklist: Total Problems (Parent Report) 0.51
19
- 69 - 18
Child Behavior Checklist: Externalizing (Parent Report) 0.23
9
- 69 - 18
Weiss, 2013
Child Behavior Checklist: Externalizing Problems 0.34 *
13
- 153 - 12
Youth Self Report: Externalizing Problems 0.12
4
- 153 - 12
Teacher Report Form: Externalizing Problems 0.08
3
- 153 - 12
Days Suspended From School 0.37
14
- 153 - 12
Child well-being: Social functioning 0.02
0
3 (12) 946 Favorable: 0
No Effect: 12
Unfavorable: 0
-
Asscher, 2013
Involvement with Deviant Peers -0.09
-3
- 256 - 0
Involvement with Prosocial Peers 0.24
9
- 256 - 0
Fonagy, 2018
Self-reported Delinquency: Peer Delinquency -0.03
-1
- 550 - 2
Self-reported Delinquency: Peer Delinquency 0.03
1
- 473 - 8
Self-reported Delinquency: Peer Delinquency 0.01
0
- 446 - 14
Henggeler, 1997
Missouri Peer Relations Inventory: Emotional Bonding (Parent Report) 0.01
0
- 140 - 0
Missouri Peer Relations Inventory: Aggression (Parent Report) 0.23
9
- 140 - 0
Missouri Peer Relations Inventory: Social Maturity (Parent Report) -0.11
-4
- 140 - 0
Missouri Peer Relations Inventory: Emotional Bonding (Child Report) -0.04
-1
- 140 - 0
Missouri Peer Relations Inventory: Aggression (Child Report) -0.22
-8
- 140 - 0
Missouri Peer Relations Inventory: Social Maturity (Child Report) -0.02
0
- 140 - 0
Parent Peer Conformity Inventory: Antisocial Peer Conformity Index -0.07
-2
- 140 - 0
Child well-being: Cognitive functions and abilities 0.13
5
1 (3) 486 Favorable: 0
No Effect: 3
Unfavorable: 0
-
Fonagy, 2018
Conners CBRS: Language and Learning Disorder (Parent Report) 0.14
5
- 451 - 2
Conners CBRS: Language and Learning Disorder (Parent Report) 0.11
4
- 486 - 8
Conners CBRS: Language and Learning Disorder (Parent Report) 0.13
5
- 451 - 14
Child well-being: Substance use -0.04
-1
2 (7) 703 Favorable: 1
No Effect: 5
Unfavorable: 1
-
Fonagy, 2018
Self-reported Delinquency: Variety of Substance Misuse 0.27 *
10
- 550 - 2
Self-reported Delinquency: Volume of Substance Misuse 0.04
1
- 550 - 2
Self-reported Delinquency: Variety of Substance Misuse 0.04
1
- 473 - 8
Self-reported Delinquency: Volume of Substance Misuse 0.01
0
- 473 - 8
Self-reported Delinquency: Variety of Substance Misuse 0.09
3
- 446 - 14
Self-reported Delinquency: Volume of Substance Misuse 0.01
0
- 446 - 14
Weiss, 2013
Self Reported Delinquency: Drug Use -0.43 *
-16
- 153 - 12
Child well-being: Delinquent behavior 0.13 *
5
7 (48) 2200 Favorable: 11
No Effect: 33
Unfavorable: 4
-
Asscher, 2013
Self-Report Delinquency Scale: Violent Offending 0.00
0
- 256 - 0
Self-Report Delinquency Scale: Property Offenses 0.31 *
12
- 256 - 0
Asscher, 2014
Self-Report Delinquency Scale: Violent Offending 0.05
2
- 256 - 6
Self-Report Delinquency Scale: Property Offenses 0.41 *
15
- 256 - 6
Recidivism: At Least One Arrest in Past 6 Months -0.28
-11
- 201 - 6
Recidivism: Number of Arrests in the Past 6 Months 0.00
0
- 201 - 6
Recidivism: At Least One Arrest in the Past 24 Months -0.44 *
-16
- 192 - 24
Recidivism: Number of Arrests in the Past 24 Months 0.00
0
- 192 - 24
Borduin, 1995
Proportion of Youth Not Arrested (Survival Curve) Favorable *
not calculated
- 176 - 48
Arrested One or More Times: Any Offense 1.18 *
38
- 176 - 48
Number of Arrests: Violent Crimes Favorable *
not calculated
- 176 - 48
Fonagy, 2018
No Offending Behavior in Past 6 Months: All Crimes -0.01
0
- 679 - 2
No Offending Behavior in Past 6 Months: Violent Crimes 0.10
3
- 679 - 2
No Offending Behavior in Past 6 Months: Non-Violent Crimes 0.11
4
- 679 - 2
Number of Crimes in Past 6 Months: All Crimes 0.14
5
- 679 - 2
Number of Crimes in Past 6 Months: Violent Crimes 0.00
0
- 679 - 2
Number of Crimes in Past 6 Months: Non-Violent Crimes 0.13
5
- 679 - 2
No Offending Behavior in Past 12 Months: All Crimes -0.10
-4
- 679 - 8
No Offending Behavior in Past 6 Months: Violent Crimes 0.04
1
- 679 - 8
No Offending Behavior in Past 6 Months: Non-Violent Crimes -0.13
-5
- 679 - 8
Number of Crimes in Past 6 Months: All Crimes 0.07
2
- 679 - 8
Number of Crimes in Past 6 Months: Violent Crimes 0.00
0
- 679 - 8
Number of Crimes in Past 6 Months: Non-Violent Crimes -0.13
-5
- 679 - 8
No Offending Behavior in Past 6 Months: All Crimes -0.30 *
-11
- 679 - 14
No Offending Behavior in Past 6 Months: Violent Crimes -0.14
-5
- 679 - 14
No Offending Behavior in Past 6 Months: Non-Violent Crimes -0.22
-8
- 679 - 14
Number of Crimes in Past 6 Months: All Crimes -0.15
-5
- 679 - 14
Number of Crimes in Past 6 Months: Violent Crimes -0.19 *
-7
- 679 - 14
Number of Crimes in Past 6 Months: Non-Violent Crimes -0.29 *
-11
- 679 - 14
Self-reported Delinquency: Variety of Delinquent Acts 0.04
1
- 550 - 2
Self-reported Delinquency: Volume of Delinquent Acts 0.01
0
- 550 - 2
Self-reported Delinquency: Variety of Delinquent Acts 0.01
0
- 473 - 8
Self-reported Delinquency: Volume of Delinquent Acts 0.01
0
- 473 - 8
Self-reported Delinquency: Variety of Delinquent Acts -0.06
-2
- 446 - 14
Self-reported Delinquency: Volume of Delinquent Acts 0.00
0
- 446 - 14
Henggeler, 1997
Self-Report Delinquency Scale: General Delinquency 0.10
4
- 140 - 0
Self-Report Delinquency Scale: Offense Index 0.40 *
15
- 140 - 0
Annualized Rate of Arrests 0.13
5
- 140 - 16
Annualized Days of Incarceration 0.44 *
16
- 140 - 16
Ogden, 2006
Self-Report Delinquency Scale (Youth Report) 0.14
5
- 69 - 18
Vidal, 2017
Adjudication Rate (Survival Analysis) Favorable *
not calculated
- 716 - 0
Rate of Placement in Juvenile Training School (Survival Analysis) Favorable *
not calculated
- 716 - 0
Adjudicated offense during followup period 0.49 *
18
- 716 - 0
Placement in Juvenile Training School Ever During Follow-up 0.47 *
17
- 716 - 0
Weiss, 2013
Time to First Felony Arrest (Survival Analysis) Null
not calculated
- 164 - 24
Time to First Misdemeanor Arrest (Survival Analysis) Null
not calculated
- 164 - 24
Time to First Arrest (Survival Analysis) Null
not calculated
- 164 - 24
Self Reported Delinquency: Delinquency -0.09
-3
- 153 - 12
Child well-being: Educational Achievement and Attainment -0.13
-5
1 (1) 153 Favorable: 0
No Effect: 1
Unfavorable: 0
-
Weiss, 2013
Core School Grades -0.13
-5
- 153 - 12
Adult well-being: Positive parenting practices 0.12
4
3 (49) 969 Favorable: 12
No Effect: 37
Unfavorable: 0
-
Asscher, 2013
Positive Discipline: Composite Score (Parent Report) 0.32 *
12
- 256 - 0
Inept Discipline: Composite Score (Parent Report) -0.06
-2
- 256 - 0
Quality of Parent-Adolescent Relationship: Composite Score (Parent Report) 0.21
8
- 256 - 0
Positive Discipline: Composite Score (Child Report) 0.21
8
- 256 - 0
Inept Discipline: Composite Score (Child Report) -0.19
-7
- 256 - 0
Quality of Parent-Adolescent Relationship: Composite Score (Child Report) 0.12
4
- 256 - 0
Coder Impressions Inventory: Positive Parenting Behavior 0.37 *
14
- 256 - 0
Coder Impressions Inventory: Inept Discipline 0.13
5
- 256 - 0
Coder Impressions Inventory: Quality of Parent-Adolescent Relationship 0.28 *
10
- 256 - 0
Competence subscale: 15 items answer on 6-point scale (1=completely disagree, 6=completely agree). 0.34 *
13
- 256 - 0
Dekovic, 2012
Positive Discipline: Composite Score (Self-Report and Observed) 0.38 *
14
- 256 - 0
Inept Discipline: Composite Score (Self-Report and Observed) 0.12
4
- 256 - 0
Adolescent-Parent Relationship Quality: Composite Score (Self-Report and Observed) 0.40 *
15
- 256 - 0
Fonagy, 2018
Alabama Parenting Questionnaire: Problems of Monitoring and Supervision (Child Report) 0.04
1
- 553 - 2
Alabama Parenting Questionnaire: Problems of Monitoring and Supervision (Parent Report) 0.22 *
8
- 560 - 2
Loeber Parental Support Score (Parent Report) 0.33 *
13
- 550 - 2
Alabama Parenting Questionnaire: Parental Involvement (Parent Report) 0.22 *
8
- 560 - 2
Alabama Parenting Questionnaire: Positive Parenting (Parent Report) 0.09
3
- 560 - 2
Alabama Parenting Questionnaire: Corporal Punishment (Parent Report) 0.12
4
- 560 - 2
Alabama Parenting Questionnaire: Inconsistent Discipline (Parent Report) 0.21 *
8
- 560 - 2
Alabama Parenting Questionnaire: Parent Involvement (Child Report) 0.11
4
- 553 - 2
Alabama Parenting Questionnaire: Positive Parenting (Child Report) 0.10
3
- 553 - 2
Alabama Parenting Questionnaire: Corporal Punishment (Child Report) 0.01
0
- 553 - 2
Alabama Parenting Questionnaire: Inconsistent Discipline (Child Report) 0.09
3
- 553 - 2
Alabama Parenting Questionnaire: Problems of Monitoring and Supervision (Child Report) -0.01
0
- 479 - 8
Alabama Parenting Questionnaire: Problems of Monitoring and Supervision (Parent Report) 0.03
1
- 486 - 8
Loeber Parental Support Score (Parent Report) 0.14
5
- 473 - 8
Alabama Parenting Questionnaire: Parent Involvement (Child Report) -0.04
-1
- 479 - 8
Alabama Parenting Questionnaire: Positive Parenting (Child Report) 0.06
2
- 479 - 8
Alabama Parenting Questionnaire: Corporal Punishment (Child Report) 0.02
0
- 479 - 8
Alabama Parenting Questionnaire: Inconsistent Discipline (Child Report) 0.14
5
- 479 - 8
Alabama Parenting Questionnaire: Parental Involvement (Parent Report) -0.03
-1
- 486 - 8
Alabama Parenting Questionnaire: Positive Parenting (Parent Report) 0.00
0
- 486 - 8
Alabama Parenting Questionnaire: Corporal Punishment (Parent Report) 0.17
6
- 486 - 8
Alabama Parenting Questionnaire: Inconsistent Discipline (Parent Report) 0.19 *
7
- 486 - 8
Alabama Parenting Questionnaire: Problems of Monitoring and Supervision (Child Report) -0.05
-1
- 441 - 14
Alabama Parenting Questionnaire: Problems of Monitoring and Supervision (Parent Report) -0.03
-1
- 551 - 14
Loeber Parental Support Score (Parent Report) 0.11
4
- 446 - 14
Alabama Parenting Questionnaire: Parental Involvement (Parent Report) 0.02
0
- 451 - 14
Alabama Parenting Questionnaire: Positive Parenting (Parent Report) -0.01
0
- 451 - 14
Alabama Parenting Questionnaire: Corporal Punishment (Parent Report) 0.02
0
- 451 - 14
Alabama Parenting Questionnaire: Inconsistent Discipline (Parent Report) 0.21 *
8
- 451 - 14
Alabama Parenting Questionnaire: Parent Involvement (Child Report) 0.14
5
- 441 - 14
Alabama Parenting Questionnaire: Positive Parenting (Child Report) 0.07
2
- 441 - 14
Alabama Parenting Questionnaire: Corporal Punishment (Child Report) 0.06
2
- 441 - 14
Alabama Parenting Questionnaire: Inconsistent Discipline (Child Report) 0.09
3
- 441 - 14
Weiss, 2013
Parent PAQ: Authoritarian Parenting 0.10
3
- 153 - 12
Parent PAQ: Authoritative Parenting 0.02
0
- 153 - 12
Parent PAQ: Permissive Parenting 0.13
5
- 153 - 12
Adult well-being: Parent/caregiver mental or emotional health 0.29 *
11
4 (7) 979 Favorable: 4
No Effect: 3
Unfavorable: 0
-
Borduin, 1995
SCL-90-R Global Severity Index (Mothers) 0.39 *
15
- 126 - 0
Fonagy, 2018
General Health Questionnaire 0.40 *
15
- 560 - 2
General Health Questionnaire 0.21 *
8
- 486 - 8
General Health Questionnaire 0.16
6
- 451 - 14
Henggeler, 1997
Brief Symptom Inventory: Global Severity Index (Parent) 0.31
12
- 140 - 0
Weiss, 2013
Parent PAI: Internalizing 0.45 *
17
- 153 - 12
Parent PAI: Externalizing 0.13
5
- 153 - 12
Adult well-being: Family functioning 0.12
4
5 (25) 1065 Favorable: 5
No Effect: 20
Unfavorable: 0
-
Borduin, 1995
FACES-II: Adaptability 0.45 *
17
- 126 - 0
Fonagy, 2018
FACES-IV: Family Satisfaction (Parent Report) 0.45 *
17
- 550 - 2
FACES-IV: Family Cohesion (Parent Report) 0.28 *
11
- 550 - 2
FACES-IV: Family Communication (Parent Report) 0.33 *
13
- 550 - 2
Revised Conflict Tactics Scale - Short Form (Parent Report) 0.12
4
- 550 - 2
FACES-IV: Family Satisfaction (Parent Report) 0.28 *
10
- 473 - 8
FACES-IV: Family Cohesion (Parent Report) 0.15
6
- 473 - 8
FACES-IV: Family Communication (Parent Report) 0.13
5
- 473 - 8
Revised Conflict Tactics Scale - Short Form (Parent Report) -0.01
0
- 473 - 8
FACES-IV: Family Satisfaction (Parent Report) 0.01
0
- 446 - 14
FACES-IV: Family Cohesion (Parent Report) 0.04
1
- 446 - 14
FACES-IV: Family Communication (Parent Report) 0.08
3
- 446 - 14
Revised Conflict Tactics Scale - Short Form (Parent Report) 0.01
0
- 446 - 14
Henggeler, 1997
Family Assessment Measure-III: General Index (Parent) 0.27
10
- 140 - 0
Family Assessment Measure-III: General Index (Child) -0.04
-1
- 140 - 0
Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scales-III: Cohesion (Parent) 0.13
5
- 140 - 0
Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scales-III: Adaptability (Parent) -0.26
-10
- 140 - 0
Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scales-III: Cohesion (Child) -0.05
-2
- 140 - 0
Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scales-III: Adaptability (Child) 0.04
1
- 140 - 0
Ogden, 2004
FACES-III: Adaptability Composite Score -0.19
-7
- 96 - 0
FACES-III: Cohesion Composite Score 0.16
6
- 96 - 0
Weiss, 2013
Parent FACES: Cohesion -0.22
-8
- 153 - 12
Parent FACES: Adaptability -0.12
-4
- 153 - 12
Youth FACES: Cohesion 0.01
0
- 153 - 12
Youth FACES: Adaptability -0.03
-1
- 153 - 12

*p <.05

Note: For the effect sizes and implied percentile effects reported in the table, a positive number favors the intervention group and a negative number favors the comparison group. Effect sizes and implied percentile effects were calculated by the Prevention Services Clearinghouse as described in the Handbook of Standards and Procedures, Section 5.10.4 and may not align with effect sizes reported in individual publications. Effect sizes for some outcomes were not able to be calculated by the Prevention Services Clearinghouse.

Only publications with eligible contrasts that met design and execution standards are included in the individual study findings table.

Full citations for the studies shown in the table are available in the "Studies Reviewed" section.

Sometimes study results are reported in more than one document, or a single document reports results from multiple studies. Studies are identified below by their Prevention Services Clearinghouse study identification numbers.

Studies Rated High

Study 10027

Henggeler, S. W., Melton, G. B., Brondino, M. J., Scherer, D. G., & Hanley, J. H. (1997). Multisystemic Therapy with violent and chronic juvenile offenders and their families: The role of treatment fidelity in successful dissemination. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 65(5), 821-833.

Study 10013

Asscher, J. J., Dekovic, M., Manders, W. A., van der Laan, P. H., & Prins, P. J. M. (2013). A randomized controlled trial of the effectiveness of Multisystemic Therapy in the Netherlands: Post-treatment changes and moderator effects. Journal of Experimental Criminology, 9(2), 169-187.

Asscher, J. J., Dekovic, M., Manders, W., van der Laan, P. H., Prins, P. J. M., van Arum, S., & Dutch MST Cost-Effectiveness Study Group. (2014). Sustainability of the effects of Multisystemic Therapy for juvenile delinquents in the Netherlands: Effects on delinquency and recidivism. Journal of Experimental Criminology, 10(2), 227-243.

Dekovic, M., Asscher, J. J., Manders, W. A., Prins, P. J. M., & van der Laan, P. (2012). Within-intervention change: Mediators of intervention effects during Multisystemic Therapy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 80(4), 574-587.

Manders, W. A., Dekovic, M., Asscher, J. J., van der Laan, P. H., & Prins, P. J. M. (2013). Psychopathy as predictor and moderator of Multisystemic Therapy outcomes among adolescents treated for antisocial behavior. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 41(7), 1121-1132.

Asscher, J. J., Dekovic, M., Van den Akker, A. L., Prins, P. J. M., & Van der Laan, P. H. (2018). Do extremely violent juveniles respond differently to treatment? International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 62(4), 958-977. doi:10.1177/0306624X16670951

Jansen, D. E. M. C., Vermeulen, K. M., Schuurman-Luinge, A. H., Knorth, E. J., Buskens, E., & Reijneveld, S. A. (2013). Cost-effectiveness of Multisystemic Therapy for adolescents with antisocial behaviour: Study protocol of a randomized controlled trial. BMC Public Health, 13, 369-369. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-369

Vermeulen, K. M., Jansen, D. E. M. C., Knorth, E. J., Buskens, E., & Reijneveld, S. A. (2017). Cost?effectiveness of Multisystemic Therapy versus usual treatment for young people with antisocial problems. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, 27(1), 89-102. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cbm.1988

Study 10020

Weiss, B., Han, S., Harris, V., Catron, T., Ngo, V. K., Caron, A., . . . Guth, C. (2013). An independent randomized clinical trial of Multisystemic Therapy with non-court-referred adolescents with serious conduct problems. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 81(6), 1027-1039. doi:10.1037/a0033928

Weiss, B., Han, S. S., Tran, N. T., Gallop, R., & Ngo, V. K. (2015). Test of facilitation vs. proximal process moderator models for the effects of Multisystemic Therapy on adolescents with severe conduct problem. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 43(5), 971-983. doi:619722141; 2001-95012-326.

Study 10092

Fonagy, P., Butler, S., Cottrell, D., Scott, S., Pilling, S., Eisler, I., . . . Goodyer, I. M. (2018). Multisystemic Therapy versus management as usual in the treatment of adolescent antisocial behaviour (START): A pragmatic, randomised controlled, superiority trial. The Lancet. Psychiatry, 5(2), 119-133. doi:10.1016/S2215-0366(18)30001-4

Fonagy, P., Butler, S., Goodyer, I., Cottrell, D., Scott, S., Pilling, S., . . . Haley, R. (2013). Evaluation of Multisystemic Therapy pilot services in the Systemic Therapy for At Risk Teens (START) trial: Study protocol for a randomised controlled trial. Trials, 14(1), 1-9. doi:10.1186/1745-6215-14-265

Study 10021

Borduin, C. M., Mann, B. J., Cone, L. T., Henggeler, S. W., Fucci, B. R., Blaske, D. M., & Williams, R. A. (1995). Multisystemic treatment of serious juvenile offenders: Long-term prevention of criminality and violence. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 63(4), 569-578.

Henggeler, S. W., Borduin, C. M., Melton, G. B., Mann, B. J., Smith, L. A., Hall, J. A., & Fucci, B. R. (1991). Effects of Multisystemic Therapy on drug use and abuse in serious juvenile offenders: A progress report from two outcome studies. Family Dynamics of Addiction Quarterly, 1, 40-51.

Sawyer, A. M., & Borduin, C. M. (2011). Effects of Multisystemic Therapy through midlife: A 21.9-year follow-up to a randomized clinical trial with serious and violent juvenile offenders. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 79(5), 643-652.

Schaeffer, C. M., & Borduin, C. M. (2005). Long-term follow-up to a randomized clinical trial of Multisystemic Therapy with serious and violent juvenile offenders. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73(3), 445-453.

Wagner, D. V., Borduin, C. M., Sawyer, A. M., & Dopp, A. R. (2014). Long-term prevention of criminality in siblings of serious and violent juvenile offenders: A 25-year follow-up to a randomized clinical trial of Multisystemic Therapy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 82(3), 492-499.

Johnides, B. D., Borduin, C. M., Wagner, D. V., & Dopp, A. R. (2017). Effects of Multisystemic Therapy on caregivers of serious juvenile offenders: A 20-year follow-up to a randomized clinical trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 85(4), 323-334. doi:10.1037/ccp0000199

Klietz, S. J., Borduin, C. M., & Schaeffer, C. M. (2010). Cost-benefit analysis of Multisystemic Therapy with serious and violent juvenile offenders. Journal Of Family Psychology, 24(5), 657-666. doi:10.1037/a0020838

Dopp, A. R., Borduin, C. M., Wagner, D. V., & Sawyer, A. M. (2014). The economic impact of Multisystemic Therapy through midlife: A costbenefit analysis with serious juvenile offenders and their siblings. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 82(4), 694-705. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0036415

Dopp, A. R., Borduin, C. M., Willroth, E. C., & Sorg, A. A. (2017). Long-term economic benefits of psychological interventions for criminality: Comparing and integrating estimation methods. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 23(3), 312-323. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/law0000134


Studies Rated Moderate

Study 10113

Vidal, S., Steeger, C. M., Caron, C., Lasher, L., & Connell, C. M. (2017). Placement and delinquency outcomes among system-involved youth referred to Multisystemic Therapy: A propensity score matching analysis. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 44(6), 853-866. doi:10.1111/1745-9133.12064

Study 10018

Ogden, T., & Hagen, K. A. (2006). Multisystemic treatment of serious behaviour problems in youth: Sustainability of effectiveness two years after intake. Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 11(3), 142-149.

Ogden, T., & Hagen, K. A. (2009). What works for whom? Gender differences in intake characteristics and treatment outcomes following Multisystemic Therapy. Journal of Adolescence, 32(6), 1425-1435.

Ogden, T., & Halliday-Boykins, C. A. (2004). Multisystemic treatment of antisocial adolescents in Norway: Replication of clinical outcomes outside of the US. Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 9(2), 77-83. doi:doi:10.1111/j.1475-3588.2004.00085.x


Studies Rated Low

Study 10059

Sundell, K., Hansson, K., Lofholm, C. A., Olsson, T., Gustle, L. H., & Kadesjo, C. (2008). The transportability of Multisystemic Therapy to Sweden: Short-term results from a randomized trial of conduct-disordered youths. Journal of Family Psychology, 22(4), 550-560. doi:10.1037/a0012790

Olsson, T. M. (2010). MST With conduct disordered youth in Sweden: Costs and benefits after 2 years. Research on Social Work Practice, 20(6), 561571. https://doi.org/10.1177/1049731509339028

Olsson, T. M. (2010). Intervening in youth problem behavior in Sweden: A pragmatic cost analysis of MST from a randomized trial with conduct disordered youth. International Journal of Social Welfare, 19(2), 194-205. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2397.2009.00653.x

This study received a low rating because the standards for addressing missing data were not met.
Study 10025

Fain, T., & Greathouse, S. M. (2014). Effectiveness of Multisystemic Therapy for minority youth: Outcomes over 8 years in Los Angeles County. Journal of Juvenile Justice, 3(2), 30-37.

This study received a low rating because it did not meet design confound standards.
Study 10093

Glisson, C., Schoenwald, S. K., Hemmelgarn, A., Green, P., Dukes, D., Armstrong, K. S., & Chapman, J. E. (2010). Randomized trial of MST and ARC in a two-level evidence-based treatment implementation strategy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 78(4), 537-550. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0019160

This study received a low rating because baseline equivalence of the intervention and comparison groups was necessary and not demonstrated.

Studies Reviewed for Risk of Harm

Study 10024

Butler, S., Baruch, G., Hickey, N., & Fonagy, P. (2011). A randomized controlled trial of Multisystemic Therapy and a statutory therapeutic intervention for young offenders. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 50(12), 1220-1235.e2. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2011.09.017

Cary, M., Butler, S., Baruch, G., Hickey, N., & Byford, S. (2013). Economic evaluation of Multisystemic Therapy for young people at risk for continuing criminal activity in the UK. PLoS ONE, 8(4), e61070-e61070. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0061070

Study 10105

Nelson, J. R., Hurley, K. D., Synhorst, L., Epstein, M. H., Stage, S., & Buckley, J. (2009). The child outcomes of a behavior model. Exceptional Children, 76(1), 7-30.

Study 10015

Henggeler, S. W., Halliday-Boykins, C. A., Cunningham, P. B., Randall, J., Shapiro, S. B., & Chapman, J. E. (2006). Juvenile drug court: Enhancing outcomes by integrating evidence-based treatments. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 74(1), 42-54.

Study 10014

Henggeler, S.W., Rowland, M. D., Randall, J., Ward, D. M., Pickrel, S. G., Cunningham, P. B., & Santos, A.B. (1999). Home-based Multisystemic Therapy as an alternative to the hospitalization of youths in psychiatric crisis: Clinical outcomes. Journal of the American Academic of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 38(11), 1331-1339.

Henggeler, S. W., Rowland, M. D., Pickrel, S. G., Miller, S. L., Cunningham, P. B., Santos, A. B., . . . Edwards, J. E. (1997). Investigating family-based alternatives to institution-based mental health services for youth: Lessons learned from the pilot study of a randomized field trial. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 26(3), 226-233. doi:10.1207/s15374424jccp2603_1

Henggeler, S. W., Rowland, M. D., Halliday-Boykins, C., Sheidow, A. J., Ward, D. M., Randall, J., . . . Edwards, J. (2003). One-year follow-up of Multisystemic Therapy as an alternative to the hospitalization of youths in psychiatric crisis. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 42(5), 543-551.

Huey, S. J., Jr., Henggeler, S. W., Rowland, M. D., Halliday-Boykins, C. A., Cunningham, P. B., Pickrel, S. G., & Edwards, J. (2004). Multisystemic Therapy effects on attempted suicide by youths presenting psychiatric emergencies. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 43(2), 183-190.

Huey, S. J., Jr., Henggeler, S. W., Rowland, M. D., Halliday-Boykins, C. A., Cunningham, P. B., & Pickrel, S. G. (2005). Predictors of treatment response for suicidal youth referred for emergency psychiatric hospitalization. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 34(3), 582-589. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15374424jccp3403_13

Sheidow, A. J., Bradford, W. D., Henggeler, S. W., Rowland, M. D., Halliday-Boykins, C., Schoenwald, S. K., & Ward, D. M. (2004). Treatment costs for youths receiving Multisystemic Therapy or hospitalization after a psychiatric crisis. Psychiatric Services, 55(5), 548-554.

Schoenwald, S. K., Ward, D. M., Henggeler, S. W., & Rowland, M. D. (2000). Multisystemic Therapy versus hospitalization for crisis stabilization of youth: Placement outcomes 4 months postreferral. Mental Health Services Research, 2(1), 3-12.

Study 10026

Henggeler, S. W., Melton, G. B., & Smith, L. A. (1992). Family preservation using Multisystemic Therapy: An effective alternative to incarcerating serious juvenile offenders. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 60(6), 953-961.

Henggeler, S. W., Melton, G. B., Smith, L. A., Schoenwald, S. K., & Hanley, J. H. (1993). Family preservation using multisystemic treatment: Long-term follow-up to a clinical trial with serious juvenile offenders. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 2(4), 283-293.

Study 10089

Curtis, N. M., Ronan, K. R., Heiblum, N., & Crellin, K. (2009). Dissemination and effectiveness of Multisystemic Treatment in New Zealand: A benchmarking study. Journal Of Family Psychology, 23(2), 119-129. doi:10.1037/a0014974

Study 10108

Scherer, D. G., Brondino, M. J., Henggeler, S. W., Melton, G. B., & Hanley, J. H. (1994). Multisystemic Family Preservation Therapy: Preliminary findings from a study of rural and minority serious adolescent offenders. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 2(4), 198-206. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/106342669400200402

Study 10050

Borduin, C. M., Henggeler, S. W., Blaske, D. M., & Stein, R. J. (1990). Multisystemic treatment of adolescent sexual offenders. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 34(2), 105-113.

Mann, B. J., Borduin, C. M., Henggeler, S. W., & Blaske, D. M. (1990). An investigation of systemic conceptualizations of parent-child coalitions and symptom change. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 58(3), 336-344. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.58.3.336

Study 10019

Timmons-Mitchell, J., Bender, M. B., Kishna, M. A., & Mitchell, C. C. (2006). An independent effectiveness trial of Multisystemic Therapy with juvenile justice youth. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 35(2), 227-236. doi:10.1207/s15374424jccp3502_6


Studies Not Eligible for Review

Study 10016

Henggeler, S. W., Letourneau, E. J., Chapman, J. E., Borduin, C. M., Schewe, P. A., & McCart, M. R. (2009). Mediators of change for Multisystemic Therapy with Juvenile Sexual Offenders. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 77(3), 451-462. doi:10.1037/a0013971

Letourneau, E. J., Henggeler, S. W., Borduin, C. M., Schewe, P. A., McCart, M. R., Chapman, J. E., & Saldana, L. (2009). Multisystemic Therapy for juvenile sexual offenders: 1-year results from a randomized effectiveness trial. Journal of Family Psychology, 23(1), 89-102. doi:10.1037/a0014352

Letourneau, E. J., Henggeler, S. W., McCart, M. R., Borduin, C. M., Schewe, P. A., & Armstrong, K. S. (2013). Two-year follow-up of a randomized effectiveness trial evaluating MST for juveniles who sexually offend. Journal of Family Psychology, 27(6), 978-985. doi:10.1037/a0034710

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 10022

Borduin, C. M., Schaeffer, C. M., & Heiblum, N. (2009). A randomized clinical trial of Multisystemic Therapy with Juvenile Sexual Offenders: Effects on youth social ecology and criminal activity. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 77(1), 26-37.

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 10028

Brown, T. L., Henggeler, S. W., Schoenwald, S. K., Brondino, M. J., & Pickrel, S. G. (1999). Multisystemic treatment of substance abusing and dependent juvenile delinquents: Effects on school attendance at posttreatment and 6-month follow-up. Children's Services, 2(2), 81-93. doi:10.1207/s15326918cs0202_2

Cunningham, P. B., Henggeler, S. W., Brondino, M. J., & Pickrel, S. G. (1999). Testing underlying assumptions of the family empowerment perspective. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 8(4), 437-449. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1021951720298

Henggeler, S. W., Clingempeel, W. G., Brondino, M. J., & Pickrel, S. G. (2002). Four-year follow-up of Multisystemic Therapy with substance-abusing and substance-dependent juvenile offenders. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 41(7), 868-874. doi:https://doi.org/10.1097/00004583-200207000-00021

Henggeler, S. W., Pickrel, S. G., Brondino, M. J., & Crouch, J. L. (1996). Eliminating (almost) treatment dropout of substance abusing or dependent delinquents through home-based Multisystemic Therapy. The American Journal Of Psychiatry, 153(3), 427-428.

Henggeler, S. W., Pickrel, S. W., & Brondino, M. J. Multisystemic treatment of substance-abusing and -dependent delinquents: Outcomes, treatment, fidelity, and transportability. Mental Health Services Research, 1(3), 171-184.

Schoenwald, S. K., Ward, D. M., Henggeler, S. W., Pickrel, S. G., & Patel, H. (1996). Multisystemic Therapy treatment of substance abusing or dependent adolescent offenders: Costs of reducing incarceration, inpatient, and residential placement. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 5(4), 431-444.

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 10058

Rowland, M. D., Halliday-Boykins, C. A., Henggeler, S. W., Cunningham, P. B., Lee, T. G., Kruesi, M. J. P., & Shapiro, S. B. (2005). A randomized trial of Multisystemic Therapy with Hawaii's Felix Class youths. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 13(1), 13-23.

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 10088

Cunningham, P. B., & Henggeler, S. W. (2001). Implementation of an empirically based drug and violence prevention and intervention program in public school settings. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 30(2), 221-232. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/S15374424JCCP3002_9

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4).

Study 10091

Dopp, A. R., Coen, A. S., Smith, A. B., Reno, J., Bernstein, D. H., Kerns, S. E. U., & Altschul, D. (2018). Economic impact of the statewide implementation of an evidence-based treatment: Multisystemic Therapy in New Mexico. Behavior Therapy, 49(4), 551-566. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beth.2017.12.003

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4).

Study 10103

Lee, M. Y., Greene, G. J., Fraser, J. S., Edwards, S. G., Grove, D., Solovey, A. D., & Scott, P. (2013). Common and specific factors approaches to home-based treatment: I-FAST and MST. Research on Social Work Practice, 23(4), 407-418. doi:10.1007/s10488-007-0141-z

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4).

Study 10110

Stambaugh, L. F., Mustillo, S. A., Burns, B. J., Stephens, R. L., Baxter, B., Edwards, D., & DeKraai, M. (2007). Outcomes from wraparound and Multisystemic Therapy in a center for mental health services system-of-care demonstration site. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 15(3), 143-155. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/10634266070150030201

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4).

Study 10111

Swenson, C. C., Henggeler, S. W., Schoenwald, S. K., Kaufman, K. L., & Randall, J. (1998). Changing the social ecologies of adolescent sexual offenders: Implications of the success of Multisystemic Therapy in treating serious antisocial behavior in adolescents. Child Maltreatment, 3(4), 330-338. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1077559598003004005

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4).

Study 10237

Tolman, R. T., Mueller, C. W., Daleiden, E. L., Stumpf, R. E., & Pestle, S. L. (2008). Outcomes from Multisystemic Therapy in a statewide system of care. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 17(6), 894-908. doi:10.1007/s10826-008-9197-y

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4).