Parent-Child Interaction Therapy

Mental Health Well Supported

In Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT), parents are coached by a trained therapist in behavior-management and relationship skills. PCIT is a program for two to seven-year old children and their parents or caregivers that aims to decrease externalizing child behavior problems, increase positive parenting behaviors, and improve the quality of the parent-child relationship. During weekly sessions, therapists coach caregivers in skills such as child-centered play, communication, increasing child compliance, and problem-solving. Therapists use “bug-in-the-ear” technology to provide live coaching to parents or caregivers from behind a one-way mirror (there are some modifications in which live same-room coaching is also used). Parents or caregivers progress through treatment as they master specific competencies, thus there is no fixed length of treatment. Most families are able to achieve mastery of the program content in 12 to 20 one-hour sessions. Master’s level therapists who have received specialized training provide PCIT services to children and caregivers.


Parent-Child Interaction Therapy is rated as a well-supported practice because at least two studies with non-overlapping samples carried out in usual care or practice settings achieved a rating of moderate or high on design and execution and demonstrated favorable effects in a target outcome domain. At least one of the studies demonstrated a sustained favorable effect of at least 12 months beyond the end of treatment on at least one target outcome.


Sources

The program or service description, target population, and program or service delivery and implementation information was informed by the following sources: The California Evidence-based Clearinghouse for Child Welfare, the program or service developer’s website, the program or service manual, and the studies reviewed.


This information does not necessarily represent the views of the program or service developers. For more information on how this program or service was reviewed, visit the Review Process page or download the Handbook.

Target Population

PCIT is typically appropriate for families with children who are between two and seven years old and experience emotional and behavioral problems that are frequent and intense. 

Dosage

PCIT is typically delivered over 12-20 weekly hour-long sessions, but the exact treatment length varies based on the needs of the child and family. Treatment is considered complete when a positive parent-child relationship is established, the parent can effectively manage the child’s behavior, and the child’s behavior is within normal limits on a behavior rating scale.

Location/Delivery Setting
Recommended Locations/Delivery Settings

PCIT is usually delivered in playroom settings where therapists can observe behaviors through a one-way mirror. By using the one-way mirror therapists can provide verbal direction and support to the parent using a wireless earphone. Video technology can also be used to deliver the program in other environments such as the home.

Location/Delivery Settings Observed in the Research

  • Home
  • Mental Health Center, Treatment Center, Therapist Office
  • Non-Correctional Residential Center
  • School
  • University Clinical Lab
  • University research clinic

Education, Certifications and Training

To become a certified PCIT therapist, individuals must be a licensed mental health provider with a master’s degree (or higher) in a mental health field or a third year psychology doctoral student who works under the supervision of a licensed mental health service provider. Individuals must also complete 40-hours of training with PCIT trainers and approved materials. Although online-based trainings are offered, at least 30 of the 40 required hours must be in face-to-face training.

Additional information about these trainings can be found on the PCIT International website.

Program or Service Documentation
Book/Manual/Available documentation

The Parent-Child Interaction Therapy Protocol is designed for PCIT-trained therapists and includes session outlines, forms, handouts, and teacher information.

Eyberg, S. & Funderburk, B. (2011) Parent-Child Interaction Therapy Protocol: 2011. PCIT International, Inc.

Available languages

Materials are available in languages other than English, including Spanish.

Other supporting materials

PCIT Provider Materials

Contact Information for Developers

Website: http://www.pcit.org/

Email: pcit.international@gmail.com

Results of Search and Review Number of Studies Identified and Reviewed for Parent-Child Interaction Therapy
Identified in Search 36
Eligible for Review 21
Rated High 5
Rated Moderate 6
Rated Low 3
Reviewed Only for Risk of Harm 7
Outcome Effect Size
and Implied Percentile Effect
N of Studies (Findings) N of Participants Summary of Findings
Child well-being: Behavioral and emotional functioning 0.92
32
11 (46) 524 Favorable: 18
No Effect: 28
Unfavorable: 0
Child well-being: Social functioning 0.52
19
1 (2) 19 Favorable: 0
No Effect: 2
Unfavorable: 0
Adult well-being: Positive parenting practices 1.46
42
8 (25) 422 Favorable: 20
No Effect: 5
Unfavorable: 0
Adult well-being: Parent/caregiver mental or emotional health 0.58
21
3 (6) 252 Favorable: 4
No Effect: 2
Unfavorable: 0
Adult well-being: Family functioning 0.29
11
5 (10) 177 Favorable: 0
No Effect: 10
Unfavorable: 0

Note: For the effect sizes and implied percentile effects reported in the table, a positive number favors the intervention group and a negative number favors the comparison group. Effect sizes for some outcomes were not able to be calculated by the Prevention Services Clearinghouse.

The findings reported for this program or service are derived from eligible, prioritized studies rated as moderate or high on study design and execution and do not represent the findings from all eligible studies of the program or service. Learn more on the FAQ page.

Outcome Effect Size
and Implied Percentile Effect
N of Studies (Findings) N of Participants Summary of Findings Months after treatment
when outcome measured
Child well-being: Behavioral and emotional functioning 0.92 *
32
11 (46) 524 Favorable: 18
No Effect: 28
Unfavorable: 0
-
Abrahamse, 2016
Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory (mother-report): Problems Scale 0.68
25
- 38 - 0
Bagner, 2007
Dyadic Parent-Child Interaction Coding System: Child Compliance 1.30 *
40
- 21 - 0
Child Behavior Checklist: Externalizing Problems 1.04 *
35
- 22 - 0
Child Behavior Checklist: Total Problem Behavior 0.94
32
- 22 - 0
Bagner, 2010
Child Behavior Checklist: Internalizing Problems 1.44 *
42
- 25 - 0
Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory: Intensity Scale 2.72 *
49
- 25 - 0
Bjorseth, 2016
Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory: Intensity Scale (Mother Report) 0.40
15
- 55 - 1
Eyberg Child Behavior Index: Intensity (Mother Report) 0.38
14
- 59 - 13
Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory: Intensity Scale (Father Report) 0.72 *
26
- 49 - 1
Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory: Intensity Scale (Father Report) 0.47
17
- 56 - 13
Child Behavior Checklist: Externalizing (Mother Report) -0.40
-15
- 50 - 1
Leung, 2015
Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory: Intensity Scale 1.62 *
44
- 111 - 0
Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory: Problem Scale 1.01 *
34
- 111 - 0
Leung, 2017
Eyberg Child Behavior Index: Intensity Scale 1.70 *
45
- 64 - 0
Eyberg Child Behavior Index: Problem Scale 1.19 *
38
- 64 - 0
Child Behavior Checklist: Attention Problems 0.68 *
25
- 64 - 0
Child Behavior Checklist: Internalizing Problems 0.87 *
30
- 64 - 0
Child Behavior Checklist: Externalizing Problems 0.95 *
32
- 64 - 0
Matos, 2009
Behavioral Assessment System for Children: Hyperactivity 1.77 *
46
- 32 - 0
Behavioral Assessment System for Children: Aggression 1.43 *
42
- 32 - 0
Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory: Problem Scale 1.91 *
47
- 32 - 0
McCabe, 2009
Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory: Intensity Scale 0.36
14
- 34 - 0
Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory: Problem Scale 0.18
7
- 34 - 0
Child Behavior Checklist: Externalizing Problems 0.58
21
- 34 - 0
Early Childhood Inventory-4: ADHD Symptoms 0.39
15
- 34 - 0
Early Childhood Inventory-4: Oppositional Defiant Disorder Symptoms -0.13
-5
- 34 - 0
Early Childhood Inventory-4: Conduct Disorder Symptoms 0.07
2
- 34 - 0
McCabe, 2012
Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory: Problem Scale 0.20
8
- 28 - 16
Child Behavior Checklist: Internalizing Problems -0.06
-2
- 28 - 16
Child Behavior Checklist: Externalizing Problems 0.15
5
- 28 - 16
Early Childhood Inventory-4: Oppositional Defiant Disorder Symptoms 0.07
2
- 28 - 16
Early Childhood Inventory-4: Conduct Disorder Symptoms -0.16
-6
- 28 - 16
Child Behavior Checklist: Total Problem Behavior 0.00
0
- 28 - 16
Schuhmann, 1998
Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory: Intensity Scale (Mother Report) 1.46 *
42
- 42 - 0
Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory: Problem Scale (Mother Report) 1.35 *
41
- 42 - 0
Solomon, 2008
Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory: Problem Scale 0.99
33
- 19 - 0
Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory: Intensity Scale 0.48
18
- 19 - 0
Behavior Assessment System for Children: Aggression 0.20
8
- 19 - 0
Behavior Assessment System for Children: Hyperactivity 0.52
19
- 19 - 0
Behavior Assessment System for Children: Attention Problems 0.66
24
- 19 - 0
Behavior Assessment System for Children: Conduct Problems 0.67
24
- 19 - 0
Behavior Assessment System for Children: Adaptability 0.89
31
- 19 - 0
Behavior Assessment System for Children: Depression -0.07
-2
- 19 - 0
Behavior Assessment System for Children: Atypicality 0.62
23
- 19 - 0
Thomas, 2011
Child Behavior Checklist Parent Report: Externalizing 0.39
14
- 78 - 0
Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory: Problem Scale 0.64 *
23
- 73 - 0
Child well-being: Social functioning 0.52
19
1 (2) 19 Favorable: 0
No Effect: 2
Unfavorable: 0
-
Solomon, 2008
Behavior Assessment System for Children: Social Skills 0.73
26
- 19 - 0
Behavior Assessment System for Children: Leadership 0.31
12
- 19 - 0
Adult well-being: Positive parenting practices 1.46 *
42
8 (25) 422 Favorable: 20
No Effect: 5
Unfavorable: 0
-
Bagner, 2007
Dyadic Parent-Child Interaction Coding System: "Don't" Skills 1.20 *
38
- 21 - 0
Bagner, 2010
Parenting Scale: Laxness 0.98 *
33
- 25 - 0
Parenting Scale: Verbosity 0.74
26
- 25 - 0
Dyadic Parent-Child Coding System: Child Directed Interaction Don't skills 1.61 *
44
- 25 - 0
Bjorseth, 2016
Parental Don't Skills 1.19 *
38
- 49 - 1
Parental Don't Skills 0.94 *
32
- 50 - 13
Leung, 2015
Dyadic Parent-Child Interaction Coding System: Positive Practices 3.99 *
49
- 111 - 0
Dyadic Parent-Child Interaction Coding System: Command/Question/Negative Talk 1.99 *
47
- 111 - 0
Corporal punishment (frequency) 1.23 *
38
- 111 - 0
Leung, 2017
Dyadic Parent-Child Interaction Coding System: Positive Practices 2.24 *
48
- 64 - 0
Dyadic Parent-Child Interaction Coding System: Command/Question/Negative Talk 2.03 *
47
- 64 - 0
Corporal punishment (frequency) 2.78 *
49
- 64 - 0
McCabe, 2009
Parenting Practices Scale 0.04
1
- 34 - 0
Dyadic Parent Child Interaction Coding System: Child-led Play "Do" Skills 1.56 *
44
- 34 - 0
Dyadic Parent Child Interaction Coding System: Child-led Play "Don't" Skills 0.96 *
33
- 34 - 0
Dyadic Parent Child Interaction Coding System: Parent-led Play "Do" Skills 0.59
22
- 34 - 0
Dyadic Parent Child Interaction Coding System: Parent-led Play "Don't" Skills 0.78 *
28
- 34 - 0
Dyadic Parent Child Interaction Coding System: Clean-Up "Do" Skills 1.54 *
43
- 34 - 0
Dyadic Parent Child Interaction Coding System: Clean-Up "Don't" Skills 1.55 *
43
- 34 - 0
Dyadic Parent Child Interaction Coding System: Clean-Up Compliance 0.40
15
- 34 - 0
Schuhmann, 1998
Dyadic Parent-Child Interaction Coding System-III: Maternal Praise 1.85 *
46
- 41 - 0
Dyadic Parent-Child Interaction Coding System-III: Maternal Behavioral Descriptions 2.31 *
48
- 41 - 0
Thomas, 2011
Dyadic Parent-Child Interaction Coding System: Praise Verbalizations 1.22 *
38
- 76 - 0
Dyadic Parent-Child Interaction Coding System: Command Verbalizations 0.64 *
23
- 76 - 0
Emotional Availability Scale: Parent Sensitivity -0.17
-6
- 76 - 0
Adult well-being: Parent/caregiver mental or emotional health 0.58 *
21
3 (6) 252 Favorable: 4
No Effect: 2
Unfavorable: 0
-
Leung, 2015
Parenting Stress Index 0.84 *
29
- 111 - 0
Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale 0.58 *
21
- 111 - 0
Leung, 2017
Parenting Stress Index 1.19 *
38
- 64 - 0
Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale 0.56 *
21
- 64 - 0
Thomas, 2011
Parenting Stress Inventory: Parent Stress 0.36
13
- 77 - 0
Child Abuse Potential Inventory 0.02
0
- 76 - 0
Adult well-being: Family functioning 0.29
11
5 (10) 177 Favorable: 0
No Effect: 10
Unfavorable: 0
-
Bagner, 2007
Parenting Stress Index: Parental Distress 0.02
0
- 22 - 0
Parenting Stress Index: Parent-Child Dysfunctional Interaction 0.50
19
- 22 - 0
Parenting Stress Index: Difficult Child 0.57
21
- 22 - 0
Bagner, 2010
Parenting Stress Index-Short Form: Parent-Child Dysfunctional Interaction 0.36
14
- 25 - 0
McCabe, 2009
Parenting Stress Index 0.47
18
- 34 - 0
Parenting Stress Index: Parent Distress 0.27
10
- 34 - 0
Parenting Stress Index: Parent Child Dysfunctional Interaction Scale 0.61
22
- 34 - 0
Parenting Stress Index: Difficult Child Scale 0.17
6
- 34 - 0
Solomon, 2008
Parenting Stress Index Null
not calculated
- 19 - 0
Thomas, 2011
Parenting Stress Inventory: Difficult Child Scale 0.20
7
- 77 - 0

*p <.05

Note: For the effect sizes and implied percentile effects reported in the table, a positive number favors the intervention group and a negative number favors the comparison group. Effect sizes and implied percentile effects were calculated by the Prevention Services Clearinghouse as described in the Handbook of Standards and Procedures, Section 5.10.4 and may not align with effect sizes reported in individual publications. Effect sizes for some outcomes were not able to be calculated by the Prevention Services Clearinghouse.

The findings reported for this program or service are derived from eligible, prioritized studies rated as moderate or high on study design and execution and do not represent the findings from all eligible studies of the program or service. Learn more on the FAQ page.

Only publications with eligible contrasts that met design and execution standards are included in the individual study findings table.

Full citations for the studies shown in the table are available in the "Studies Reviewed" section.

Sometimes study results are reported in more than one document, or a single document reports results from multiple studies. Studies are identified below by their Prevention Services Clearinghouse study identification numbers.

Studies Rated High

Study 10035

McCabe, K., & Yeh, M. (2009). Parent-Child Interaction Therapy for Mexican Americans: A randomized clinical trial. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 38(5), 753-759. doi:10.1080/15374410903103544

McCabe, K., Yeh, M., Lau, A., Argote, C. B., McCabe, K., Yeh, M., . . . Argote, C. B. (2012). Parent-Child Interaction Therapy for Mexican Americans: results of a pilot randomized clinical trial at follow-up. Behavior Therapy, 43(3), 606-618. doi:10.1016/j.beth.2011.11.001

Study 10127

Leung, C., Tsang, S., Ng, G. S. H., & Choi, S. Y. (2017). Efficacy of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy with Chinese ADHD children: Randomized controlled trial. Research on Social Work Practice, 27(1), 36-47.

Study 10126

Leung, C., Tsang, S., Sin, T. C. S., & Choi, S. Y. (2015). The efficacy of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy with Chinese families: Randomized controlled trial. Research on Social Work Practice, 25(1), 117-128.

Study 10030

Solomon, M., Ono, M., Timmer, S., & Goodlin-Jones, B. (2008). The effectiveness of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy for families of children on the autism spectrum. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 38(9), 1767-1776. doi:10.1007/s10803-008-0567-5

Study 10119

Bjorseth, A., & Wichstrom, L. (2016). Effectiveness of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) in the treatment of young children's behavior problems. A randomized controlled study. PLoS ONE, 11(9), e0159845. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0159845


Studies Rated Moderate

Study 10034

Matos, M., Bauermeister, J. J., & Bernal, G. (2009). Parent-Child Interaction Therapy for Puerto Rican preschool children with ADHD and behavior problems: A pilot efficacy study. Family Process, 48(2), 232-252.

Study 10056

Thomas, R., & Zimmer-Gembeck, M. J. (2011). Accumulating evidence for Parent-Child Interaction Therapy in the prevention of child maltreatment. Child Development, 82(1), 177-192.

Study 10031

Bagner, D. M., Sheinkopf, S. J., Vohr, B. R., & Lester, B. M. (2010). Parenting intervention for externalizing behavior problems in children born premature: An initial examination. Journal of Developmental Behavioral Pediatrics, 31(3), 209-216.

Bagner, D. M., Graziano, P. A., Jaccard, J., Sheinkopf, S. J., Vohr, B. R., & Lester, B. M. (2012). An initial investigation of baseline respiratory sinus arrhythmia as a moderator of treatment outcome for young children born premature with externalizing behavior problems. Behavior Therapy, 43(3), 652-665. doi:00004703-200506000-00008.

Study 10131

Schuhmann, E. M., Foote, R. C., Eyberg, S. M., Boggs, S. R., & Algina, J. (1998). Efficacy of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy: Interim report of a randomized trial with short-term maintenance. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 27(1), 34-45.

Study 10029

Bagner, D. M., & Eyberg, S. M. (2007). Parent-Child Interaction Therapy for disruptive behavior in children with mental retardation: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 36(3), 418-429. doi:10.1080/15374410701448448

Bagner, D. M. (2013). Fathers role in parent training for children with developmental delay. Journal of Family Psychology, 27(4), 650-657. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0033465

Study 10054

Abrahamse, M. E., Junger, M., van Wouwe, M. A., Boer, F., & Lindauer, R. J. (2016). Treating child disruptive behavior in high-risk families: A comparative effectiveness trial from a community-based implementation. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 25, 1605-1622. doi:10.1007/s10826-015-0322-4


Studies Rated Low

Study 10038

Nixon, R. D. V., Sweeney, L., Erickson, D. B., & Touyz, S. W. (2003). Parent-Child Interaction Therapy: A comparison of standard and abbreviated treatments for oppositional defiant preschoolers. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71(2), 251-260. doi:10.1037/0022-006x.71.2.251

Nixon, R. D. V., Sweeney, L., Erickson, D. B., & Touyz, S. W. (2004). Parent-Child Interaction Therapy: One- and two-year follow-up of standard and abbreviated treatments for oppositional preschoolers. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 32(3), 263-271.

This study received a low rating because it did not meet design confound standards.
Study 10133

Thomas, R., & Zimmer-Gembeck, M. J. (2012). Parent-Child Interaction Therapy: An evidence-based treatment for child maltreatment. Child Maltreatment, 17(3), 253-266. doi:10.1177/1077559512459555

This study received a low rating because baseline equivalence of the intervention and comparison groups was necessary and not demonstrated.
Study 10122

Funderburk, B. W., Eyberg, S. M., Newcomb, K., McNeil, C. B., Hembree-Kigin, T., & Capage, L. (1998). Parent-Child Interaction Therapy with behavior problem children: Maintenance of treatment effects in the school setting. Child & Family Behavior Therapy, 20(2), 17-38.

McNeil, C. B., Eyberg, S., Hembree Eisenstadt, T., Newcomb, K., & Funderburk, B. (1991). Parent-Child Interaction Therapy with behavior problem children: Generalization of treatment effects to the school setting. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 20(2), 140-151.

This study received a low rating because baseline equivalence of the intervention and comparison groups was necessary and not demonstrated.

Studies Reviewed for Risk of Harm

Study 10057

Webb, H. J., Thomas, R., McGregor, L., Avdagic, E., & Zimmer-Gembeck, M. J. (2017). An evaluation of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy with and without motivational enhancement to reduce attrition. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 46(4), 537-550. doi:10.1080/15374416.2016.1247357

Study 10036

McNeil, C. B., Capage, L. C., Bahl, A., & Blanc, H. (1999). Importance of early intervention for disruptive behavior problems: Comparison of treatment and waitlist-control groups. Early Education & Development, 10(4), 445-454. doi:10.1207/s15566935eed1004_2

Study 10037

Nixon, R. D. V. (2001). Changes in hyperactivity and temperament in behaviourally disturbed preschoolers after Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT). Behaviour Change, 18(3), 168-176.

Study 10055

Brestan, E. V., Eyberg, S. M., Boggs, S. R., & Algina, J. (1997). Parent-Child Interaction Therapy: Parents' perceptions of untreated siblings. Child & Family Behavior Therapy, 19(3), 13-28. doi:10.1300/J019v19n03_02

Study 10114

Abrahamse, M. E., Junger, M., Chavannes, E. L., Coelman, F. J. G., Boer, F., & Lindauer, R. J. L. (2012). Parent-Child Interaction Therapy for preschool children with disruptive behaviour problems in the Netherlands. Child And Adolescent Psychiatry And Mental Health, 6(1), 24-24. doi:10.1186/1753-2000-6-24

Study 10125

Leung, C., Tsang, S., Heung, K., & Yiu, I. (2009). Effectiveness of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) among Chinese families. Research on Social Work Practice, 19(3), 304-313.

Study 10135

van der Veen-Mulders, L., van den Hoofdakker, B. J., Nauta, M. H., Emmelkamp, P., & Hoekstra, P. J. (2018). Methylphenidate has superior efficacy over Parent-Child Interaction Therapy for preschool children with disruptive behaviors. Journal of Child & Adolescent Psychopharmacology, 28(1), 66-73. doi:10.1089/cap.2017.0123


Studies Not Eligible for Review

Study 10032

Chaffin, M., Silovsky, J. F., Funderburk, B., Valle, L. A., Brestan, E. V., Balachova, T., . . . Bonner, B. L. (2004). Parent-Child Interaction Therapy with physically abusive parents: Efficacy for reducing future abuse reports. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 72(3), 500-510. doi:10.1037/0022-006X.72.3.500

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 10033

Chaffin, M., Funderburk, B., Bard, D., Valle, L. A., & Gurwitch, R. (2011). A combined motivation and Parent-Child Interaction Therapy package reduces child welfare recidivism in a randomized dismantling field trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 79(1), 84-95. doi:10.1037/a0021227

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 10115

Allen, J., & Marshall, C. R. (2011). Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) in school-aged children with specific language impairment. International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders, 46(4), 397-410. doi:10.3109/13682822.2010.517600

This study is ineligible for review because it does not report program or service impacts on an eligible target outcome (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.5).

Study 10118

Bagner, D., Coxe, S., Hungerford, G., Garcia, D., Barroso, N., Hernandez, J., . . . Barroso, N. E. (2016). Behavioral parent training in infancy: A window of opportunity for high-risk families. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 44(5), 901-912. doi:10.1007/s10802-015-0089-5

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 10120

Blizzard, A. M., Barroso, N. E., Ramos, F. G., Graziano, P. A., & Bagner, D. M. (2017). Behavioral parent training in infancy: What about the parent-infant relationship? Journal Of Clinical Child And Adolescent Psychology, 17, 1-13. doi:10.1080/15374416.2017.1310045

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 10121

Chaffin, M., Valle, L. A., Funderburk, B., Gurwitch, R., Silovsky, J., Bard, D., . . . Kees, M. (2009). A motivational intervention can improve retention in PCIT for low-motivation child welfare clients. Child Maltreatment, 14(4), 356-368. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1077559509332263

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 10123

Gross, D. A., Belcher, H. M. E., Ofonedu, M. E., Breitenstein, S., Frick, K. D., & Chakra, B. (2014). Study protocol for a comparative effectiveness trial of two parent training programs in a fee-for-service mental health clinic: Can we improve mental health services to low-income families? Trials, 15, 70. doi:10.1186/1745-6215-15-70

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4).

Study 10124

Lanier, P., Kohl, P. L., Benz, J., Swinger, D., Moussette, P., & Drake, B. (2011). Parent-Child Interaction Therapy in a community setting: Examining outcomes, attrition, and treatment setting. Research on Social Work Practice, 1(6), 689-698.

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4).

Study 10128

Luby, J., Lenze, S., & Tillman, R. (2012). A novel early intervention for preschool depression: Findings from a pilot randomized controlled trial. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 53(3), 313-322. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2011.02483.x

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 10129

Luby, J. L., Barch, D. M., Whalen, D., Tillman, R., & Freedland, K. E. (2018). A randomized controlled trial of parent-child psychotherapy targeting emotion development for early childhood depression. American Journal of Psychiatry, 175(11), 1102-1110. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2018.18030321

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 10130

Mersky, J. P., Topitzes, J., Grant-Savela, S. D., Brondino, M. J., & McNeil, C. B. (2016). Adapting Parent-Child Interaction Therapy to foster care. Research on Social Work Practice, 26(2), 157-167.

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 10132

Shafiei, B., Faramarzi, S., Abedi, A., Dehqan, A., & Scherer, R. C. (2018). Effects of the Lidcombe Program and Parent-Child Interaction Therapy on stuttering reduction in preschool children. Folia Phoniatrica Et Logopaedica, 71(1), 29-41. doi:10.1159/000493915

This study is ineligible for review because it does not report program or service impacts on an eligible target outcome (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.5).

Study 10134

Timmer, S. G., Urquiza, A. J., Boys, D. K., Forte, L. A., Quick-Abdullah, D., Chan, S., & Gould, W. (2016). Filling potholes on the implementation highway: Evaluating the implementation of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy in Los Angeles County. Child Abuse & Neglect, 53, 40-50. doi:10.1016/j.chiabu.2015.11.011

This study is ineligible for review because it does not use an eligible study design (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.4).

Study 10236

Scudder, A. T., McNeil, C. B., Chengappa, K., & Costello, A. H. (2014). Evaluation of an existing parenting class within a women's state correctional facility and a parenting class modeled from Parent-Child Interaction Therapy. Children and Youth Services Review, 46, 238-247. doi:10.1016/j.childyouth.2014.08.015

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).

Study 10238

Wallace, N. M., Quetsch, L. B., Robinson, C., McCoy, K., & McNeil, C. B. (2018). Infusing Parent-Child Interaction Therapy principles into community-based wraparound services: An evaluation of feasibility, child behavior problems, and staff sense of competence. Children and Youth Services Review, 88, 567-581. doi:10.1016/j.childyouth.2018.04.007

This study is ineligible for review because it is not a study of the program or service under review (Study Eligibility Criterion 4.1.6).